**ABSTRACT**

The teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter and his ability to communicate it are very important factors in the teaching and learning process (Seng, 2003). In relation, Halai (2009) stressed that one has to be able to understand the language of instruction. According to Francisco (2000), code-switching is an evocative way to communicate between two individuals that are more proficient in separate language and it also encourages interaction in the target language. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of code-switching as a medium of instruction in teaching and learning Contemporary Mathematics and its effectiveness as an approach to change the achievement and persistence of sixty (60) Grade Five pupils during the third quarter of S.Y. 2019 – 2020. Quasi-experimental research was utilized in this study; code-switching was done in experimental group, while English instruction was delivered in control group. The data showed that experimental group has an overall mean score of 83.37 after the intervention was done as compared to control group with an overall mean score of 58.47. Also, there is a significant difference in the mean scores of the control group and experimental group after the implementation of the intervention (p<0.05) with mean difference of 24.9. These findings inferred that code-switching can effectively improve the performance of the subjects. Teachers should use code-switching when they are teaching mathematical concepts to pupils with low math ability; and longer time should be used in conducting the study to further confirm if there is really no significant difference in the achievement of the pupils who are taught using code-switching use from those who are taught using English.

**Introduction**

Filipino and English shall be taught as language subjects in all levels to achieve the goals of bilingual competence (DO 25, s. 1974). Since competence in the use of both Filipino and English is one of the goals of the Bilingual Education Policy, continuing improvement in the teaching of both languages, their uses as media of instruction and the specification of their functions in Philippine schooling shall be the responsibility of the whole educational system. Furthermore, tertiary level institutions shall lead in the continuing intellectualization of Filipino.

The teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter and his ability to communicate it are very important factors in the teaching and learning process (Seng, 2003). Content expertise or knowledge is a salient ingredient to become an effective and efficient teacher, however, this kind of expertise is useless if the teacher cannot deliver the lessons well and if his students do not understand these lessons thus resulting to lower comprehension on the part of the students.

However, according to Nebres (2006), nowadays one of the major concerns and challenges of mathematics education in the Southeast Asia is the relatively weak achievement of students and the school systems in learning basic mathematics. The concern is thus on the success in teaching fundamentals of mathematics. Moreover, it is disheartening to know that many Filipinos experience not only an aversion but also an anxiety from mathematics (Cardona, 2009). Most students consider mathematics as extremely difficult, tedious and mind-numbing (Antonio, 2009). As a consequence, the quality of mathematics education here in the Philippines is declining as specified by various research findings. Recently, based from the 2019 PISA Results, Philippines ranked as lowest achievement in Mathematics among several countries. These findings challenge the mathematics teachers on providing solutions to the above-mentioned predicament because if this is not properly acted upon, then the achievement of Filipino students is assumed to continue to degrade drastically.

In relation, Halai (2009) maintains that for understanding the mathematical ideas and concepts, one has to be able to understand the language of instruction. If this language is foreign to the learner then it becomes a double task of learning both the foreign language as well as the mathematics that is being taught – all at the same time. She then suggested that this problem can be addressed only by allowing the movement between the languages used in the class, known as code-switching.

Code-switching is the use of two languages simultaneously or interchangeably. It implies some degree of competence in two languages (Valdes-Fallis, 1977). As cited by Gumperz (1982), Corder (1981) describes code-switching as discourse exchanges which form a single unitary interactional whole. It was seen and is still seen as a random process that could be elucidated by interference. It is also considered today as a rule-governed behavior and as a communication strategy. Furthermore, Francisco (2000) expressed that it is an evocative way to communicate between two individuals that are more proficient in separate language and it also encourages interaction in the target language. In addition, code-switching takes place on account of a need felt by learners to make sense of the given instructions and also of the tortuous mathematics. Generally there is a shift to local language as soon as there is some conceptual difficulty (Metila, 2009).

Nurbaya (2011) augmented this by saying that in the classroom where English is popularly used as the medium of class instructions, first language, on the other hand, provides an effective way of understanding the content deeply and quickly. Also, Lim and Presmeg (2010) argued that using two languages in teaching and learning in mathematics classrooms bring additive effect on students’ cognitive ability that provides students to not only be adept in mathematics lesson, but also for both their languages proficiency.

Remarkably, in the study of Adler and Setati (2001), it was noted that some teachers claimed that they had to use the first language to teach in some occasions because their students did not understand the mathematical terms or the concepts. The study considered code-switching a tool which can provide spontaneous and reactive discussion of concepts by learners and teachers in their main language.

It is for these reasons and arguments that the researcher conceived of undertaking a study to find out the efficacy of code-switching as medium of instruction in teaching and learning Contemporary Mathematics and its effectiveness as an approach to change the achievement and persistence of the Grade Five pupils during the third quarter of S.Y. 2019 – 2020.

**Research Questions**

Generally, this study aims to determine the efficacy of code-switching on the Contemporary Mathematics achievement and persistence of the grade five pupils. The researcher is enveloped with his eagerness to investigate if this kind of medium significantly affects the achievement and persistence of his learners.

Specifically, it seeks to find out answers to the following questions:

1. What are the pretest and post-test mean scores of the comparison group and experimental group on measurement achievement test?

2. Is there a significant difference between the pretest and post-test mean scores of the comparison group and experimental group on measurement achievement test according to

2.1. conceptual understanding?

2.2. computational understanding?

3. Is there a significant difference on measurement achievement level of the comparison group from the experimental group on the pretest and post-test according to

3.1. conceptual understanding?

3.2. computational understanding?

**Intervention**

The intervention is the code-switching that took place during the teaching-learning process. However, the definitions of the terms, the properties and the mathematical problems to be used and be included in the lessons were not translated into code-switch form. This means that only the explanation of the terms, properties, mathematical problems, and the mechanics of activities were delivered thru code-switching.

The purpose of code-switching are as follows: to illuminate or highlight message, to explain, to construe, to distinguish, to emphasize a point, for ease and efficiency of expression, for repetition, to express group identity and status or to be accepted by a group, to quote someone, to interject in a conversation, to exclude someone from an episode of conversation, to clarify topics discussed, to repair anxiety or silence in university classes, to signal topic shifts, and to communicate affective and repetitive functions in the classroom. Here, the switch itself is vital not to referential value of the utterances. The same thing is said in both languages (Romaine, 1989; Cruz, 1993; Baker, 1993; Sert, 2005; Ustunel, 2004). Other functions of code-switching are to qualify a message, to fill a linguistic need for lexical term, to set a phrase, for discourse maker, and for sentence filler (Grosjean, 1982; Gumperz, 1982).

A duration of four (4) weeks were utilized to test the effect of the said intervention to the level of intended learning outcomes of the students in Decimals.

**Methods**

**Research Design**

The study employed the quasi-experimental design. The said design is a powerful research methodology to begin cause-and-effect relationships among variables. Particularly, this study used the Randomized Pretest – Posttest Control Group Design, using Matched Group Subject. In this specific type of design, two groups of subjects were used, with both groups being measured or observed twice. The first measurement obliges as the pretest while the second as the post test. Random assignment was utilized to form the groups. The measurements were collected at the same time for both groups (Fraenkel et al. 2006). Thus, the design was utilized to describe the levels of intended learning outcomes of the two groups before and after the implementation of the code-switching principle. Also, it was used to determine any significant difference in the level of intended learning outcomes of the two groups.

**Sampling**

The study was conducted in Longos Elementary School during the Third Quarter of the School Year 2019-2020. The subjects were the Grade five (5) pupils.

The participants were grouped into two using randomized selection technique. There were thirty (30) pupils per group. Considerably, the proponent respect the right of the learner and his/her parent if he/she disagrees to be included in the experimental group. The control group underwent the usual method of presenting lessons through English teaching, while the code switching Principle employed the experimental group. Notably, the two groups were harmonized depending on the result of their pretest.

**Data Collection**

To ensure the consistency of data to be gathered, the following major stages were followed.

**1. Pre-experimental Stage**

The pretest was conducted to have the raw data for the level of intended learning outcomes of the subjects before the implementation of the Code-Switching Principle. The pretest was validated by a research panelist, school testing coordinator and the school head. Afterwards, a mechanical matching was checked if the levels of intended learning outcomes of the control group and experimental group are statistically the same.**2. Experimental Stage**

In this stage, twenty sessions (sixty minutes per session) were executed both to the control and experimental groups. The said sessions lasted for a month and set both to control and experimental group.

On the duration of the experiment, the researcher handled both groups. Identical lessons, illustrative examples, exercises, and assignments were taught and given to both groups. However, specific strategies were applied to each of the group, that is, the content of the English-Tagalog teaching vary. For the control group, the usual strategy of presenting information through the English teaching of concepts was employed. Whereas, the Code-Switching Principle was carried out to the experimental group.

**3. Post-experimental Stage**

The post test was enforced after the execution of the comparative effects of using Code – Switching as media of instruction in the experimental group to get the raw data for the level of intended learning outcomes of the subjects after the implementation of the intervention. The post testing materials that was used must be parallel to the pre testing materials and it must also meet the standards set by the validation team. Afterwards, the focus group discussion was carried out.

**Data Analysis**

For question 1, the level of intended learning outcomes of the subjects were presented using Mean and Standard Deviation. The said level of intended learning outcomes in measurement were described qualitatively based on the grading scale of the K to 12 Basic Education Program as specified in DepEd Order No. 31, s. 2012. This is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Interpretation Guide for Level of Intended Learning Outcomes

in Statistics and Probability

**For question 2**, the Paired-Samples T-Test at 0.05 level of significance was employed to determine if there exists significant difference on the mean percentage score of each of the two groups before and after the implementation of the intervention.**For question 3**, the Independent-Samples T-Test at 0.05 level of significance was employed to determine if there exists significant difference on the mean percentage score between the two groups before and after the implementation of the intervention. Also, this tool was signified whether the intervention is effective.**For question 4**, the responses of the subjects during the FGD was thematically analyzed to determine the perceived effects of code-switching of the experimental group and the challenges encountered by the control group.

All data were tabulated and analyzed using the Students’ Version of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

**Ethical Issues**

Proper protocol was observed by the proponent before this action research is implemented.

After the approval of this action research proposal, the proponent was immediately prepare a letter of request for the School Principal thru proper channels requesting the conduct of the said program. A copy of the pretest results was provided to the testing coordinator for farther reference. The participants of the study as well as their parents or guardians were informed that they were part of a research through an orientation seminar. They were given the assurance that whatever results that transpired from the study were kept with utmost confidentiality and all data to be collected, analyzed and interpreted were solely be used for the purpose of this study. Furthermore, authors of books, journals and online references were properly acknowledged and cited.

**Results and Discussion**

Section 1. The Performance of Control and Experimental Group

As can be gleaned from the table, the pre-numeracy level of the control and experimental group is both qualitatively described as beginning with an overall mean scores of 42.07 and 43.70, respectively. This suggests that the participants from each group have the same entry level before the intervention.

The table above shows that the numeracy level of the experimental group after the intervention is qualitatively described as approaching proficiency with an overall mean score of 83.37. This suggests that the use of Code-Switching has the potential to increase the performance of pupils. On the other hand, the level of the control group after the intervention is qualitatively described as still beginning with an overall mean score of 58.47.

Section 2. The Significant difference on the Control and Experimental Groups

Table 3. Paired Samples t-test Result on Significant Difference of the Control Group

The mean scores of the pretest and posttest differ by 16.4 which is considered significant as supported by the p-value (p<0.05). Thus, the subjects under the control group significantly increased their performance without the application of the intervention.

Table 4. Paired Samples t-test Result on Significant Difference of the Experimental Group

The mean scores of the pretest and posttest differ by 36.07 which is considered significant as supported by the p-value (p<0.05). Hence, the subjects under the experimental group significantly increased their performance with the use of code-switching as medium of instruction.

Section 3. The Significant difference between the Control and Experimental Groups

Table 5. Independent Samples t-test Result on Significant Difference before the Intervention

There is no significant difference on the performance of the subjects under the control group and experimental group before the implementation of the intervention. This implies that the two groups are statistically the same. Moreover, this furthers that the mechanical matching done by the researcher was successful.

Table 6. Independent Samples t-test Result on Significant Difference after the Intervention

It is manifested from the result of the conducted independent samples t-test that there is a significant difference in the mean scores of the control group and experimental group after the implementation of the intervention (p<0.05) with mean difference of 24.9. It was gleaned that the subjects under the experimental group significantly performed better than the subjects under the control group. The findings inferred that Code-Switching can effectively improve the performance of the subjects.

**Conclusions**

In the light of the foregoing findings, the following conclusions were drawn.

**Contemporary Mathematics Achievement**

1. The use of Code-switching as medium of instruction in teaching Contemporary Mathematics significantly increased the mean scores of the experimental group at different ability groups both in its conceptual and computational understandings. Thus, code-switching is effective in improving test scores in Contemporary Mathematics.

2. As regards their conceptual understanding, the low math ability of experimental group significantly achieved more than their counterparts in the comparison group. Thus, code-switching is remarkably better than that of English in teaching concepts to pupils with low math ability. However, pupils with high math ability can have significant improvement in their computational understanding in Contemporary Mathematics Achievement whether they are instructed using English or Code-switching as medium.

3. Both English and Code-switching are equally effective in increasing the Contemporary Mathematics achievement of the pupils at different ability groups.

**Contemporary Mathematics Persistence**

1. The use of code-switching is an effective way to improve the persistence of grade five pupils, remarkably better than that of English in which it was found out that there is no significant difference on the persistence level of the comparison group before and after the treatment.

Code-switching is remarkably better than that of English in increasing the persistence level of students with high math ability. Since persistence is a variable to be considered in mathematics achievement, then it is a must for teachers to integrate the use of code-switching in teaching and learning process.