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· Volume II Issue II


Palincsar, Brown, and Campione (1989) define Reciprocal Teaching as a dialogue between teacher and student which was described as such because each learner acts in response to another. This interaction may occur between teacher and student or between students. The dialogue is structured using four strategies: Predicting, Questioning, Clarifying and Summarizing which can improve learners’ comprehension.

This study aims to enhance Grade 10 students’ achievement and reading comprehension in Science using Reciprocal Teaching (RT). One-hundred twenty (120) students in Sulivan National High School in Baliuag, Bulacan were selected as participants for this study. The students’ achievement was determined through the administration of a 5-item VCQ-MCTwo-Tier Test with 15 total points while the students’ comprehension was identified using a Modified 4-point Comprehension Rating Scale from A Pilot Validation of an Academic Rating Scale of Reading Comprehension by Gebhardt (2013). Results showed that the use of RT strategy has a positive effect on the students’ achievement with a mean difference of 3.93 and a t-value of 19.75 at 0.05 level of significance. Similarly, comprehension after exposure to RT was generally acceptable with the mean value of 3.20. The study clearly indicates that the RT which intends to develop reading comprehension skills can increase students’ achievement and comprehension. However, there is a negligible correlation between students’ achievement and comprehension after exposed to RT. This exhibits that these two variables are independent of one another. The components of RT are effective as a guide in the implementation of the said strategy. Hence, the use of RT Strategy in teaching Science lessons and in other subject areas is recommended.


Several instructional strategies are used by the teachers to raise the learning ability of students and bring out the best of them. Despite this, there are still some students who can hardly cope with the lessons due to poor comprehension.

The most important among literacy skills is reading. Once reading comprehension is developed by a student, it will make him/her easier to learn the other remaining literacy skills. Leipzig (2001) defined reading as a multifaceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation.

The issue of learner’s comprehension in the core subjects like English, Math and Science that use English as a medium of instruction, has become crucial and even affects its learning rate. Paris (1983) emphasized that learning to be a strategic reader can promote reading comprehension and failure to be strategic in reading may result from either developmental inability or poor learning.

In this regard, the researchers would use reciprocal teaching as an instructional strategy in teaching Science as described by Annemarie Palincsar and Anne Brown (1984) to examine improvement in students’ reading comprehension and achievement in Science. This strategy is structured to employ 4 processes: Predicting, Clarifying, Questioning, and Summarizing.


The researchers conducted the study at Sulivan National High School and San Manuel High School. The class of Grade 10 was used as the subject of the study. To measure students’ achievement, they were administered a 5-item VCQ-MCTwo-Tier Multiple Choice test for pre-test and posttest. Every correct answer for the first question of each item was given one (1) point and for the second question of each item was given two (2) points having a total of 15 points.

The test was checked, scored, and tabulated for evaluation purposes. Below is the classification of the students’ answers:

CU – Complete Understanding (If both of the items of the two-tier are correct)

PU – Partial Understanding (If only the first item of the two-tier is correct)

NU – No Understanding (If both of the items of the two-tier are wrong)

G – Guessing (If the second item of the two-tier is correct and

the first item is wrong)

On the other hand, to measure students’ comprehension, the class was grouped with four members each. Each group was given reading packets with reading selections about the endocrine system and worksheet to work on for the elements of reciprocal teaching – Predicting, Clarifying, Questioning, and Summarizing. It was evaluated using a Modified 4-point Comprehension Rating Scale from A Pilot Validation of an Academic Rating Scale of Reading Comprehension by Gebhardt (2013).


After data analysis and statistical treatment, the researchers acquired the following results:

The average mean of pretest and posttest scores for all students was 8.96 and 12.89 respectively with a difference of 3.93. A T-test indicated that the mean score for the pre-test was 20.60 and the posttest was 40.35. At 0.5 level of significance, it clearly shows that the posttest scores were greater than the pretest scores in the students’ achievement having a t-value of 19.75. It suggests that learning took place after exposure to Reciprocal Teaching Strategy.

The frequency of understanding categories was counted in the pre-test result of the students. It shows that the majority of the students had Complete Understanding in the pre-test item pairs 1, 4, and 5 and students had Partial Understanding in pre-test item pairs 2 and 3. Quite a number were obtained for No Understanding and for Guessing.

However, the frequency of understanding categories counted in the posttest result shows that majority of the students had increased Complete Understanding in the posttest of all items. Quite a number were obtained for Partial Understanding and a very small number for Guessing.

The data gathered shows that there is a change in the percentage of understanding category between pretest and posttest. The percentage for Complete Understanding in the posttest had increased compared to the pre-test. Other categories for Partial Understanding, No Understanding, and Guessing in the posttest had decreased compared to the pre-test. These results were obtained after the implementation of the Reciprocal Teaching Strategy. It gives us the impression that the Reciprocal Teaching Strategy had a positive effect on the students’ achievement.

The relationship between the students' achievement and students' comprehension, on the other hand, is negligible based on Pearson r Correlation. This means that the two variables are independent of one another.


After the study, the following was concluded based on the data collected and analyzed:

1. It was proven that the Reciprocal Teaching Strategy enhanced the students’ achievement on the topic Endocrine System.

2. The level of comprehension of students on the topic Endocrine System after exposure to Reciprocal Teaching was generally acceptable.

3. High students’ achievement does not mean a high level of students’ comprehension.

The implementation of Classroom-Based Action Research brought learnings to the researchers and made them understand the importance of using effective teaching strategies to manifest learning effectively among students.

Through the implementation of Reciprocal Teaching to Grade 10 students, the researchers found out that it is an effective strategy in understanding science lessons. The students also realized the value of reading and comprehension through the said strategy. They were able to understand the lesson through reading articles showing the application of the endocrine system’s mechanisms and the effect of the hormones on the human body. They also demonstrated a positive attitude towards reading comprehension and developed cooperation and collaboration among their groupmates. The researchers also proved that student-centered learning activities add self-esteem to the students and make the learning effective.


Achievement, Reading Comprehension, Reciprocal Teaching