Return to site



Ramon Avanceña National High School


The qualitative study using phenomenological research design aimed to know the experiences of Grade 8 teachers and learners in studying the four fundamental operations in Mathematics. Researcher-made interview guide was administered to sixteen participants. Thematic analysis was utilized for descriptive data analysis. Learners’ experiences included easy understanding of numbers, difficulty in computing big numbers and improving Math skills. Teachers’ experiences were lack of understanding and resources, lack of interest and no follow-up at home, good teaching strategy and lack of knowledge and skills. Challenges encountered by learners were difficulty in memorizing multiplication table, lack of interest and lack of motivation. Teachers’ challenges were difficulty to grasp Math concepts, lack of time and mastery, and lack of interest. Learners managed challenges by giving more time to study and practice. Teachers’ familiarized themselves with Math concepts, strong basic foundation and use of differentiated instruction. The challenges encountered were the bases in formulating the intervention program.

Keywords: Experiences, Four Fundamental Operations, Mathematics



Mathematics is an indispensable subject and it cannot be detached from humans’ daily lives. Everything in life involves Mathematics that each one should appreciate and understand.

The study of Mathematics originated alongside with the development of human civilization. In the contemporary context, the significance of Mathematics is reflected in educational curricula and the overall emphasis on learning.

From elementary school to college, Mathematics is a fundamental component, aiming to cultivate logical, analytical, systematic, critical, and creative thinking skills, as well as the ability to collaborate with others. These competencies are crucial for individuals to process and apply information effectively, enabling them to navigate changing situations and conditions (Unaenah, 2018).

Encountering challenges in learning Mathematics is inherent in the learning process. Facing difficulties, learners may exhibit developmental differences compared to their peers, and these difficulties can be manifested in various forms. Both teachers and parents share the responsibility to assist learners in overcoming these challenges (Susanto, 2013).

The educational journey is marked by a gradual progression from elementary with uncomplicated concepts to more intricate and sophisticated ideas. As learners navigate through their learning process. They move from foundational principles to more complex theories, gaining a deeper understanding of the subject matter. This sequential advancement is crucial in building comprehensive knowledge of learners. In this journey, learners engage in concrete experiences; followed by semi-concrete stages wherein they grasp concepts through illustrations; and finally, the abstract stage when learners use Mathematical symbols without relying on visual aids, as outlined by Abdurrahman (2012).

According to Mcber (2010), the advancement of learners is notably impacted by the caliber and efficacy of teachers, surpassing factors like classroom ambiance, school conditions, or student-related elements.

The Annual National Assessment Program, held in February 2011, indicated that on a national scale, learners attained an average of 35% in literacy and merely 28% in numeracy. Those outcomes were considered inadequate in both literacy and numeracy, with the underperformance attributed to learners’ challenges in reading and writing with comprehension (Department of Education, 2011).

The primary aim of secondary-level Mathematics education is to equip learners with the skills to apply various Mathematical concepts in everyday life. The learning process follows a progression from simple to complex concepts. In the concrete stages, learners engage with tangible, real-world examples, followed by the semi-concrete stage where they learn through illustrations of Mathematical objects. The final stage involves learners using symbols of Mathematics without relying on visual aids, as outlined by Abdurrahman (2012).

As a teacher, the selection of the research problem was driven by the need to understand the experiences of Grade 8 teachers regarding learners' proficiency in the four fundamental operations in Mathematics. The inquiry was intended to address the functional numeracy of Grade 8 learners in which instructional strategies played a crucial role.

The outcomes of the study were the bases for suitable intervention programs for Ramon Avanceña National High School, Schools Division of Iloilo City, during the school year 2022-2023.