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· Volume III Issue I


In achieving realistic peace in society, “Unity-Based Peace Education” plays an essential role through the utilization of the Integrative Theory of Peace as a driving force in Education for Peace Program. With a deeper cognizance of one's worldview, that is a unity-based worldview, a person develops human consciousness that enables him to be a productive entity that contributes to the advancement of society. Such a society filled with individuals who are more unity-oriented eventually lead to the development and empowerment of the collective thus creating a society that is just and humane.



"To understand the concept of unity, we must first understand our view of the world and possibly begin to change that view to one that is more unity-oriented". (Danesh, 2002) 

A harmonious and peaceful society, according to Danesh is a by-product of a continuing and delicate process to achieve unity despite the diversity in culture, race, religious and political beliefs, etc. Such a process will only materialize by understanding the underlying concepts as to how human conflict continues to arise. It entails a deeper understanding of issues of survival, security, pleasure, and individual and/or group identity in intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup levels.  In so doing, he emphasizes the Integrative Theory of Peace as an instrument for the acquisition of peace in the society. Through the years, research and studies related to peace education put too much weight on the concept of "conflict" thus making it the paramount cause for any existence of varied forms of upheavals. Also, peace studies and peace education which were conducted paid no attention to how to build a society of peace that is technologically advanced hitherto environmentally friendly, unified despite of diversity, prosperous yet benevolent, and more importantly, a society that is just. This is where the concept of Integrative Theory of Peace (ITP) comes into the picture as a comprehensive Unity-Based Peace Education Program born from the new perspective of peace and conflict, defining unity as the main law governing all human relationships and conflict as the absence of unity.



By understanding one's worldview, which must be under the law of unity, that is a unity-based worldview, an individual will have a deeper understanding of his colleagues, his environment, his working conditions, and the society in general, thus developing a human consciousness that equipped him to be a productive element of the society.

The realization of a Unity-Based Peace Education is not a far-off since it is flexible and interdisciplinary. Though it is universal in nature, its application is specific and a sort of case-to-case basis since the EFP Integrative Curriculum is designed to consider the unique characteristics, needs, and challenges of a particular community. Unity-Based Education Program however is tedious since it requires a rigorous and delicate process in attaining EFP's ultimate goal-the acquisition of human consciousness and realization of a culture of excellence, driving forces toward individual and collective development that holistically benefits society. 


Given the exciting and inspiring data from the seven years of study in 100 plus schools, and 80 000 plus participants in Bosnia Herzegovina, Unity-Based Peace Education is a testament that it can be a great tool in promoting a just, humane, and peaceful society to live by, where every individual, irrespective of race, religious affiliation and beliefs shall live in unity, though with diversity, with respect for oneself, others, the environment, and the society in general. When everyone is endowed with human consciousness, one of the most significant aspects of human development, an individual will have a greater understanding of the existing realities of his time, his nature as a person, the purpose of life, and the character and quality of human relationships. Thus, he contributes to the advancement of society through his newly developed understanding of himself, others, nature, and reality. 

With the positive outcome of EFP, various society specifically cruel and seemingly chaotic ones will have an enormous chance of acquiring absolute if not a significant existence of peace which will pave the way for development. Besides, by instituting it in education, it will provide another venue for reconciliation among warring factions of the society. Eventually, it will manifest a clear symbol of hope to mankind to savor a realistic peace. Given the positive results of the EFP integrative curriculum, needless to say, a lot of institutions or perhaps countries will undertake or embrace this particular study to promote peace in their respective community.


Notably, concepts such are survival, identity, and unity-based world worldview are significant in understanding the nature and behavior of students. It gives educators an idea of how to get abreast with the changing consciousness of the students towards themselves, others, and their environment. Likewise, it offers school administrators enough information on how to integrate them into the school curriculum from which teachers, students, and the community will benefit. Terms such as the culture of peace, culture of healing, and culture of excellence are very important in dealing day to day experiences not only for educators but to everyone as well who partakes in the endeavor of promoting peace. They provide a clearer picture of how to address issues on conflict and violence, how can they be prevented and eradicated, or otherwise minimized. 


Despite the overwhelming optimism on the outcome of Unity-Based Peace Education, some factors will hinder its realization, how can such a program ensure to create a state of harmony, integration, and cooperation between two or among several entities without jeopardizing or instigating a threat or possibility of conflict knowing that each entity would be different from the other in terms of culture, traditions, customs, education, method of governance, etc.? If the animating force of unity is love, what is the assurance of creating a new evolving identity of higher-level integration and complexity when in the first place, a hardened hatred, collective distrust, fear, animosity, and hostility reside in those various warring factions or entities? 

Unity- Based Peace Education, with its weapon the Education for Peace (EFP) integrative curriculum in one way or another will address issues about survival, security, pleasure, and individual and/or group identity to avoid human conflict. Culture of peace gives us the idea that anybody can do it as long as we provide standard norms in the context of ethics, law, and democracy coupled with an environment where equality, justice, individual and group safety and security, and freedom prevail. Further, a culture of healing underscores the idea of truth and forgiveness at interpersonal and intergroup levels as beneficial in eliminating discrimination among schools, students, and even teachers which are common in our society. To top it all the culture of excellence proposes another idea on how to provide and encourage an environment that facilitates high levels of accomplishment by all members of the school community in academic, artistic, behavioral, ethical, and skills aspects of their respective learning endeavors. 

Suffice it to say, Unity-Based Peace Education presents another venue for acquiring peace in a manner with which the idea of conflict should and must not be the focal point of the discussion rather the new perspective offered by Unity-Based Peace Education itself such as the utilization the Integrative Theory of Peace and the EFP Program. 


With adequate funding, provision of experts, and dedicated personnel that will institute the program, it will contribute to the propagation of peace in war, conflict-torn- out the society of our time. Even with its positive result from the three main ethnic populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina who suffered from the violent civil war of 1992–1995, the Unity-Based Peace Education Program is too long a process. In education, for example, there must be a restructuring of the curriculum, both the administrators and educators should see to it that they already have a unity-based world view to enable them to administer or teach in a way that is unifying rather than dividing. This simply means helping students to understand the interconnectedness of all humanity. If teachers and students are capable of expressing such love for other people and communicate how diversity makes the world a more beautiful, complete place, they have demonstrated an understanding of a unity-based worldview. To make the world a just place, students and teachers must advocate change in policies and structures that are unjust or being in solidarity with those who are experiencing injustice and helping those in need. With the implementation of these crucial undertakings, Unity-Based Peace Education will undoubtedly foster and establish a society that is conflict-free and respect human lives and dignity at its very core.