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· Volume I Issue IV



The students of today are much different twenty years ago and few would argue that today’s schools, nationally, are in trouble. The problems recur as educators, school boards, administrators, and parents search for ways to strengthen their school system at all levels, more effectively respond to the fast changing world around them, to better educate their children. To facilitate effective learning to take place, it is important that a safe, secured and positive environment is formed. To this end, the Department of Education (DepEd 2012), asserts that the school is committed to providing an environment for the delivery of quality teaching and learning by promoting the rights and safety of all students.

According to DepEd Order No.40, s. 2012, the Constitution provides that all educational institutions shall teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethic and spiritual values, and develop moral character and personal discipline. As such, it is the duty of school personnel to make students understand that discipline must be improved to comply for what the Constitution provides.

The implementation of Child Protection Policy by virtue of D.O. no. 40, s. 2012 in school has been misinterpreted by most teachers, a misconception that means that the students are untouchable, being that their rights prevent us from doing our job to provide them with proper education, and that these rights make us powerless against their intolerable behavior. As a result, children grow without proper attention they deserve, and the school guidance councilor is the primary consultant when a problem arises.

At times, school administrators, teachers included, forget themselves in the effort to discipline students; shouting, spanking, slapping to name a few, sometimes resorting into violence or a harsh punishment which is more often than not regretted when faced with complaints even worse with administrative case filed by the parents. There are also cases of unfair practices of teachers which causes trauma in students, instead of correcting their bad behavior, they become more and more distant and tend to resist even more. It is important that all school personnel must be properly trained in addressing situations and problems involving children, thus, the aim of this study.

The guidance office has already a lot in their plate, handling different cases every day. With more than 5000 junior high school students, only one school guidance councilor is assigned. Aside from minor offenses like cutting of classes and absenteeism, the guidance office handles a variety of cases. The reported cases are as follows: defamation or inflicting a wrong upon the person’s honour, property or their family; talking or constantly following or pursuing a person in their daily activities, with unwanted and obsessive attention; taking of property either temporary or permanent; public humiliation or malicious imputation of a crime or of a vice or defect, whether real or imaginary, or circumstance tending to cause dishonour, discredit or expose a person to contempt; deliberate destruction or defacement of, or damage to a student’s property; physical violence committed upon a student, which may or may not result to harm or injury with or without the aid of a weapon; demanding or requiring sexual or monetary favours, or exacting money, property or food from a student; restraining the liberty and freedom of a student; the use of electronic or other technology resulting in harassment, intimidation or humiliation; corporal punishment; and sexual abuse.

The guidance office is not supposed to be the first option of the teachers whenever a problem occurs; it is actually the last resort. Teachers are mandated to be the guidance councilors in their own class; they are obliged to settle problems occurring in the classroom since they are the closest to the children. Teachers must be trained to handle students in all matters concerning their well-being and are in charge to protect them whenever they are in their custody.

Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect (United Nations Convention). Child protection systems are a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) defines a ‘child protection system’ as: the set of laws, policies, regulations and services needed across all social sectors – especially social welfare, education, health, security and justice – to support prevention and response to protection-related risks.

In addition to academic preparation, schools are responsible for instilling in our youth the behaviors that are required to sustain society. To achieve this goal, schools must identify what an acceptable and unacceptable behavior is. The latter would be incomplete without also specifying what consequences these bring. To a great degree, the level of effectiveness of this approach determines how successfully a school can teach academics.

The Child Protection Committee (CPC), can and should play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of good discipline. For this reason, DO. No.40 S. 2012 mandates CPC to draft a school child protection policy with a code of conduct and a plan to secure child protection and safety. Adopting a code of conduct for students is a way of establishing a disciplined and purposeful school environment, dedicated to improving the quality of the learning process. In the context of this study, a disciplined environment refers to an environment free of any disruptive behaviour, which mostly relates to behaviour or action by students that may negatively affect their education or that may interfere destructively with the atmosphere conducive to learning in the classroom.

The code of conduct applies to all learners while they are in the school premises or when they are away from the school representing it or attending a school function. Section 2 of the DepEd Order No.40, s. 2012 provides that all learners attending a school are bound by the code of conduct of that school. The purpose of the code of conduct is to provide students and staff with the right to work in a secure and orderly environment and parents with the right to expect that their children will be educated in a purposeful environment in which the principles of care, courtesy and respect for the rights of others are valued.

Schools generally define and shape desirable behavior within the framework of a code of conduct. Consequences and punishments for unacceptable behaviors are specified in a discipline policy. Neither by itself is sufficient to completely address the spectrum of student behavior. Merely stating desired behavior has no provision for inevitable misconduct; having only a discipline code dwells on the negative and does not provide a positive direction.

DepEd requires that all local boards of education adopt a student code of conduct including standards of student behavior and disciplinary action for students who violate the code of conduct. It also requires school systems to provide an opportunity for parental involvement in developing and updating student codes of conduct.

Discipline is derived from the Latin word disciplinar, its true purpose is to correct individual as well as collective behaviours toward the harmonious attainment of the desired goals. Discipline represents both positive and negative values. Negatively, it is viewed as negative compulsion which usually adheres to certain rules and regulations. Punishment and rewards are attached to fulfilment or non-fulfilment of the prescribed standards or rules. In its positive aspect, discipline is viewed equal or synonymous to self-discipline. Hence, it refers to certain intrinsic values which are essentially character-building.

The maintenance of quality discipline in school is a basic concern among students, administrators, teachers, and other education personnel. To achieve this is a difficult task due to imbalance of traditional values where individual privileges are considered more than responsibilities. Apparently, people are more conscious of their rights and privileges than their duties and responsibilities. Ideally, these elements should always be on balance to promote peace and harmony.

There is a significantly unawareness of teachers’ on the implementation of Child Protection Policy because teachers’ view the policy as an obstacle in establishing their authority in the school specifically in the classroom setting. Not realizing that teachers are also responsible for the students conduct and discipline. Teachers are partly to blame for the lack of discipline of the students. They are liable for child protection in all forms, missing the fact that the Child Protection Policy focuses on the rights of children. Teachers’ common mistake is not looking into the big picture; we only see what we cannot do and what we aren’t supposed to do, failing to recognize that included in the rights of children is to teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, and develop moral character and personal discipline.

Complaining about the behavior of students won’t solve anything; one must act on it to change it. The problem lies in the implementation of child protection policy; concerned individuals are not properly informed on exactly what to do, unaware of their duties and responsibilities especially the teachers and school heads who are supposedly the ones to ensure that the rights of the children are always protected. The children are going about their daily lives doing things that they do thinking that everything is fine, but the fact that they are not properly disciplined is already a violation of their rights.

Their behavior in school is a clear representation on how well the school implements child protection policy and their understanding of the policy is critical to the implementation of it. Without clear understanding of what the children’s rights are, there would always be a conflict of interest. On one hand you want to discipline and protect them, but on the other hand, you cannot because you think you are to violate their rights. Teachers want to teach them about conduct and discipline, the problem is they are clueless where to start and too afraid to get sued trying to discipline them.

The primary tool of the school to protect its students is through the observation of the rules and regulations, and that is what the code of conduct entails. Every student must follow the code of conduct in order to have peace and order in the school. Providing a peaceful and orderly school for every child is the school’s duty.

Discipline, when applied to school systems, can be inferred from the definition of the interplay of five elements or components of the school system namely: the school administrators, the teaching staff, the students, the parents and the community. Each of these elements requires a degree of discipline to fulfill some duties and responsibilities considered important in the realization of the goals and objective of the school.

This study will benefit all students. Keeping children safe is everyone’s responsibility. Organisations and professionals who work with children are required to ensure that their policies and practices reflect this responsibility In order to protect the children, we must first ensure their safety whenever they are in school premises. Policies must be clear to students and parents alike, and must be introduced to them from the start of their enrollment. Strict implementation and compliance of the policies is the key to success.

Teachers and school heads will be enlightened as to what exactly are their duties and responsibilities to ensure that the children are protected, not only from external harm inflicted by others but by self inflicted harm as well. As educators and administrators, the role of implementing child protection policy with a code of conduct and a plan to secure child protection and safety must be strictly complied with. This is the main goal of this study, to strengthen the implementation of the child protection policy. But this can only be made a reality by dutifully implementing the said policy. It is therefore the main purpose of this study to look into how the implementation of the child protection policy can be better and meaningfully done.

Statement of the Problem
The general problem of the study is: How may the Child Protection Policy be dutifully implemented by school administrators?
Specifically, the study sought answers to the following problems:
1. What are the perception of school heads and teachers in implementing the Child Protection Policy?
2. What problems have been met by the teachers and school heads in implementing the Child Protection Policy?
3. How do the school heads and teachers address the reported cases in compliance with DepEd Order No. 40, s. 2012?
4. How may school heads and teachers strengthen the implementation of the Child Protection Policy?
5. What guide book may be proposed on the implementation of the Child Protection Policy?

Significance of the Study
This study seeks to improve and strengthen the implementation of the Child Protection Policy. It is desired that the following school stakeholders will gain benefits from the output of this study, to wit:

Students. This study will help them understand the roles and policies for ensuring their own welfare.
Teachers. This study will help the teachers understand their duty and responsibility to their students, and also to be responsible for their own actions and behavior and should avoid any misconduct and to ensure the welfare of their students.
School heads. This study will help them understand their duty and responsibility in safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people.
Department of Education. This study will help them design a program that will ensure the welfare of children and commit to safeguarding an promoting the welfare of young people and expect all staff and volunteers to share this commitment.
Academic Researchers. The study will be their basis in conducting a similar study focusing on recommendation of this study.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study
This study was conducted at Guiguinto National Vocational High School, a public school in the Division of Bulacan. The researcher covered all head teachers and advisers for grade 8 and 9. There are 8 head teachers and 46 advisers on the said school. The school has 23 sections for both grade 8 and 9 students. The researcher is currently handling grades 8 and 9 teaching industrial arts. This study regarding the problems experienced in the implementation on child protection policy was conducted during the academic year 2018-2019.

Locally constructed survey instrument was used in gathering the most needed data, and these data was mathematically treated and analyzed using descriptive analysis.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally:

Child Protection Policy (CPP). Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect. Child protection systems are a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability.

Civil Code of the Philippines. This is the product of the codification of private law in the Philippines. It is the general law that governs family and property relations in the Philippines. Code of Conduct. This is a set of rules outlining the social norms, religious rules and responsibilities of, and or proper practices for, an individual.

Corporate Law. The Corporation Code of the Philippines is the law that governs the rules and regulations in the establishment and operation of stock and non-stock corporations in the Philippines.

DECS Service Manual 2000. The Department of Education’s manual for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education. It is used to manage and govern the Philippine system of basic education.

Department of Education. The Department of Education is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education.

Department Order No. 40, s. 2012. This policy aims to protect the child from all forms of violence that may be inflicted by adults, persons in authority as well as their fellow students, including bullying.

Head Teacher. These are the people referred by the study who administer and provide consistent and substantial leadership to an educational program.
Republic Act No.232. An act providing for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education.

Revised Penal Code of the Philippines. The Revised Penal Code contains the general penal laws of the Philippines.

School-Based Child Protection Policy. Schools are mandated to adopt a code of conduct that is suitable for use or purpose of the school. It follows the idea of child protection policy containing the rules and regulations of the school for proper conduct and discipline in order to maintain peace and harmony in it, ultimately for the purpose of protecting the children.

Students. These refer to Seventh Grade to Tenth Grade level in secondary education.

Teachers. These are professionals who handle formal teaching in grades 7 to 10 of junior high school.



This chapter presents the relevant theories, the reviews of related literatures and studies that have been written and conducted which are closely related and relevant in one way or another to the present research. The conceptual framework will enrich the study.

Relevant Theories
Theory is the basis upon which all aspects of educational practices are built. It imparts a concrete foundation of well-established and accepted working frameworks of a particular research as acknowledged by experts. A variety of theories that are also often associated with educational psychology were presented in this study.

The following relevant theories helped in understanding how to better implement aspects of child protection policy that is often overlooked. These theories also helped in understanding student motivation in relation to strengthening behavior towards school discipline.

Scientific Management Theory. Taylor (1911), had very precise idea about how to introduce his system, it is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone. His scientific management consisted of four principles:

(1) Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks,

(2) scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.

(3) Provide detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task, and

(4) divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.

This theory aided the researcher formulate a system of management that would facilitate enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation. Creating a system in which the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone.

Change Theory. Lewin (1947), provide guidance on how to go about getting people to change. The Kurt Lewin change theory model is based around a 3-step process (Unfreeze-Change-Freeze) that provides a high-level approach to change.

Unfreeze, “ready to change”, when a structure has been in place for a while, habits and routine have naturally settled in. The organization as a whole is going in the right direction, but people or processes may have strayed off course. For example, tasks that are not relevant or useful anymore are still being performed by force of habit, without anyone questioning their legitimacy. Similarly, people might have learned to do things one way, without considering other, more efficient methods. Unfreezing means getting people to gain perspective on their day-to-day activities, unlearn their bad habits, and open up to new ways of reaching their objectives. Basically, the current practices and processes have to be reassessed in order for the wheels of change to be set in motion.

Change, implementation, once team members have opened up their minds, change can start. The change process can be a very dynamic one and, if it is to be effective, it will probably take some time and involve a transition period. In order to gain efficiency, people will have to take on new tasks and responsibilities, which entails a learning curve that will at first slow the organization down. A change process has to be viewed as an investment, both in terms of time and the allocation of resources: after the new organization and processes have been rolled out, a certain chaos might ensue, but that is the price to pay in order to attain enhanced effectiveness within the structure.

Freeze (sometimes called refreeze), making it stick, change will only reach its full effect if it’s made permanent. Once the organizational changes have been made and the structure has regained its effectiveness, every effort must be made to cement them and make sure the new organization becomes the standard. Further changes will be made down the line, but once the structure has found a way to improve the way it conducts its operations, re-freezing will give the people the opportunity to thrive in the new organization and take full advantage of the change.

This theory assisted the researcher to provide guidance on how to go about getting people to change. In strengthening the implementation of the child protection policy, this will help on mapping out or filling in what has been described as the missing piece between what a policy implementation or change initiative does and how these lead to desired goals being achieved.

Discipline with Dignity. Curwin and Mendler (1999), point out that students’ with chronic behavior problems see themselves as losers and have stopped trying to gain acceptance in normal ways. In order to maintain a sense of dignity, those students tell themselves it is better to stop trying than to continue failing, and that it is better to be recognized as a troublemaker than be seen as stupid. This model is a responsibility and empowerment-based versus obedience-based discipline model, which creates an atmosphere of democracy, encouragement, hope and warmth where clearly defined limits (with student input) and skills in resolving conflicts are taught and applied. Discipline with dignity was created as an approach that supports various interventions, strategies, and constructs intended to help children make better choices and to make life better for teachers, to offer educators a different vision.

To come up with guide book which equips teachers and administrators with classroom skills and techniques, this theory was used by the researcher. This may enable them to spend less time dealing with behavioral problems and more time on positive interactions with students and on instruction.

Classical Conditioning Theory. Pavlov (1927), shows how a behaviour or response that is already established can become associated with a new stimulus. It is based on the premise that a physical event referred to as stimulus initially does not elicit a particular response but gradually acquires the capacity to elicit that response as a result of repeated pairing with a stimulus that elicits a reaction. Despite the theoretical possibility of the widespread applicability of classical conditioning, most theorists agree that it represents only a very small part of total human learning.

Skinner in particular, argued that classical conditioning explains only reflexive behaviors. These are the involuntary responses that are elicited by a stimulus. Skinner felt that the more complex human behaviors cannot be explained by classical conditioning alone and asserted that most human behaviour affects or operates on the environment. According to Skinner, the latter type of behaviour is learnt through operant conditioning.

The Skinnerian model is behavioural in nature. It takes its starting point from the fact that behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated, while behaviour that receives no rewards tends to be eliminated. In maintaining discipline one generally rewards good behaviour and punishes bad behaviour (Phillips 1998). The Skinnerian model as a behaviour 23 modification paradigm derived from the work of behavioural psychologist, BF Skinner.

Skinner has been a major influence behind the adaptation of clinical behaviour techniques to classroom settings (Duke and Meckel 1980). Skinner believes that consequences (in other words, what happens to the individual after performing an act) shape an individual’s behaviour. He focused his approach on reinforcement and reward. Reinforcers are like rewards; if used in a systematic way, they influence an individual’s behaviour in a desired direction (Charles 1989). Skinner made use of terms such as operant behaviour, reinforcing stimuli, schedule of reinforcement, successive approximations, positive and negative reinforcements.

Operant Conditioning Theory. This learning theory states that people learn by continually looking for ways to achieve more positive reinforcement in terms of rewards and avoid negative reinforcement in terms of punishment (Skinner, 1953). Reinforcement is defined as a stimulus or event that affects the likelihood that an immediately preceding behaviour will be repeated.

Besides reinforcement, punishment produces avoidance behaviour, which appears to weaken learning but not curtail it. It operates under the assumption that if behaviour can be learned, it can also be unlearned. He has been associated with operant conditioning. He believes that behaviors are influenced by a history of rewards and punishments.

According to Skinner, once actions have pleasant effects, then there is the likelihood that such actions will be repeated in future. This suggests that any behaviour, in a particular context that is reinforced (rewarded) in some way will tend to be repeated in that context. However, if one’s actions have unpleasant effects, then one is less likely to repeat them in the future. Accordingly, behaviour is the function of its consequences. He further argued that thinking, problem solving and acquisition of language are dependent on these simple conditioning processes (Skinner, 1974).

Hence, operant conditioning has a great impact on human learning and it also explains much of organizational behaviour and development processes. The classical and operant conditioning theories constitute the behavioural theories concentrating on changes in observable behaviors. Behaviorist psychologists like Pavlov and Skinner associate reward with certain behaviors in order to increase the display of such behaviors.

These two theories combined aided the researcher to come up with a guide book which would promote good behavior amongst the students. Strengthening the teacher attitude towards constantly looking for ways to achieve more positive reinforcement in terms of rewards and avoid negative reinforcement in terms of punishment.

Social Learning Theory. Various psychologists have been associated with this theory notable among them being Albert Bandura, N. E. Miller and J. C. Dollard. Social learning theory also known as observational learning states that people learn through observing others’ behaviour, attitudes and outcomes of those behaviors.

Social learning theory explains human behaviour in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural, and environmental influences. Bandura (1977), believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. As such, Bandura added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. He noted that external environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behaviour but also intrinsic reinforcement such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. In other words, this theory assumes learning to be a social activity that is based on one’s needs as a human being to fit in with others.

In organizational setting, this happens naturally as workers learn to fit into the perceived organizational culture. Fitting here means that one can be accepted successfully into the organization but does not necessarily mean the individual has internalized and believes in the way things are done in the organization. Social learning theory therefore has a considerable relevance to organizational behaviour (Miller and Dollard, 1950) but its main limitation is that it ignores the role of individual choice.

This theory helped the researcher visualize a classroom setting where everyone would feel welcome and have a sense of belonging working towards a single goal. Thus, creating harmony in the class; providing an atmosphere conducive to learning.

Dreikurs’ Model of Mistaken Goals. This theory also known as Dreikurs’ Goal Centered Theory, is a psycho-educational theory is based on the work of Rudolph Driekur. This model is based on the four basic premises of Adler’s social. Dreikurs states that all student behaviour is based on four mistaken goals: attention seeking, power seeking, revenge seeking or displaying inadequacy and avoidance of failure. He suggested that they move through this sequence largely in that order, ultimately ending up at Avoidance of Failure, and perhaps dropping out.

This theory facilitated in devising a plan of action in which would help teachers on how to respond to students’ unpleasant behaviour managing misbehaviour in the classroom effectively and in the school in general. With this in mind, teachers should avoid acting on their first impulse, as this will often provide the students with exactly what they are seeking. Instead, teachers should work to determine which of these mistaken goal students are attempting to fulfil and respond appropriately.

Canter’s Assertive Behavioural Model. Canter and Canter (1992), developed an approach which he terms “assertive discipline” that cannot be described as purely behaviourist in nature, but does contain certain elements of a behaviourist approach. These researchers assert that an educator who uses assertive discipline has a clear sense of how students should behave in order for him/her to accomplish his/her teaching objectives. Assertive discipline is different from many other models in that it provides a system of dealing with behaviour at the time it occurs, through a plan that makes the learners responsible for his or her behaviour and resulting consequences (Steere 1978).

The essence of assertive discipline is captured in the following quotation: “An assertive educator will actively respond to a child’s inappropriate behaviour by clearly communicating to the child her disapproval of the behaviour, followed by what she/he wants the child to do” (Duke and Meckel 1980).

The educator should be able to communicate to the learner what is wrong and provide a model of good behaviour. Assertive discipline is premised on the notion that the educator’s attitude influences his/her behaviour that in turn influences learners’ behaviour. In illustrating the effectiveness of their model, the Canters distinguish three types of educators: non-assertive, hostile and assertive educators. Non-assertive educators are those who allow themselves to be pushed around and manipulated by learners; hostile educators err by imposing control in an arbitrary manner. Assertive educators, on the other hand, believe in their abilities and their right to use them to foster learning (Duke and Meckel 1980).

Having a clear sense of how students should behave helped the researcher to come up with a guide book to insert the idea in teachers that more than being a facilitator, becoming an assertive teacher build positive, trusting relationships with their students and teach appropriate classroom behaviour to those who don't show it at present. Teachers must be demanding, yet warm in interaction; supportive of the youngsters; and respectful in tone and mannerisms when addressing misbehaviour. Assertive teachers listen carefully to what their students have to say, speak politely to them, and treat everyone fairly but not necessarily equally.

Related Literature

This part of the chapter presents the related literature and laws after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researcher. This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical and conceptual framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms for better comprehension of the study.

Ronda (2012), writes an article about group of teachers urging the DepEd to review its “landmark” child protection policy, saying it prevents teachers from instilling discipline in the classroom. Teachers’ Dignity Coalition (TDC) national president Benjo Basas said under the policy, a teacher could be charged with child abuse for scolding a student in class and embarrassing the student in front of other students. “Even scolding a student for some infraction could be child abuse. The student could say he was humiliated and that could be abuse already,” he said. TDC, a federation of public school teachers’ associations nationwide, said the policy could lead to ill-disciplined Filipino youth. Basas said while they do not object to positive discipline and doing away with corporal punishment, following the new policy while handling a class with 50 to 70 students is impossible. “Teachers, especially those in crowded public schools, will really have a hard time maintaining order in classrooms and instilling discipline among their students,” Basas said.

Skiba and Losen (2016), trace the course of school discipline over the past 20 years and examine the status of school discipline reform today. They began with an examination of zero-tolerance, suspension, and expulsion policies, as well as their assumptions and effects. They discuss alternatives that have been proposed and the guidance that has been offered by the federal government, and examine state changes that may be models for others. For any new model to be effective, support of teachers and administrators is essential; thus, the authors consider what educators really need if they are to successfully reform school discipline.

Draman (2013), calls for the protection of abused teachers saying that the CPP protects the school children from abuse; on the contrary, students use it as a shield to abuse their teachers. He believes that though this policy is favorable to the students, it will not be the case for teachers. Teachers will not have protection against abusive and bully students; and with the policy, teacher’s authority is compromised. Teachers have become the subject of abuse because unruly students can just misbehave knowing the teacher’s limitations brought about by the CPP. Students seem to have a license to shout at their teachers, utter bad words and even physically hurt their teachers, knowing well that when teachers fight back, the CPP would make them responsible. As such, teachers would just keep themselves mum and think of it as part of the heroism they have to undertake in their chosen profession.

If a teacher has a problem student, then the school should have procedures for handling the difficulties. The teacher should not feel alone and vulnerable if a difficult situation arises. Professionalism cuts both ways: in the standards we demand of the teachers and the policies we have in support of them. The absence of a support mechanism impacts on the teacher’s performance resulting to acts of misconduct.

In affirmation to the CPP, Section 8 of the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers likewise states that “A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not a manifestation of poor scholarship”. Some of the teachers charged with abuse have done it as punishment, some with the intention of disciplining students but under unfortunate circumstances, they became the victims of adversaries.

Assessing risk is a key challenge in child protection work. Calder (2016), argues that risk now has to be reconceived as a multi-disciplinary activity which stretches beyond social work. As such, he highlighted a need for a clearer shared terminology among professionals and encourages the social work profession to look to related disciplines, such as criminal justice, for ideas to improve practice. Demystifying the complex debates around risk and showing how to deliver effective risk assessment, this is an essential reference for social workers and social work students, as well as lecturers.

According to Rhoades (2012), global support for improving child welfare and upholding the rights of children is strong, but in practice often fails to recognize the emerging gap between traditional child welfare practices and the evolving nature of child vulnerability. She considers children as citizens, as refugees, victims of trafficking, soldiers, or members of indigenous groups and identifies the political and cultural changes that need to take place in order to deliver rights for these children. Focusing in particular on child protection systems across nations, she identified areas of child welfare and family law which systematically fail to look after the best interests of children, often through prejudice, outdated practice, or even the failure of agencies to work together.

Exclusionary and punitive school discipline policies, such as suspensions and expulsions, allow educators to remove students from the classroom for poor behavior or misconduct; but Rafa (2018), cites alternatives to suspensions and expulsions--such as restorative practices and positive behavioral supports and interventions--aim to keep students engaged in the classroom while addressing the root causes of misbehavior.

Together, a school district and a local union are working to ensure that educators are trained in restorative practices in order to improve school climates and keep students in school and learning. Dubin (2016), describes how, in recent years, administrators and teachers have shifted from traditional school punishments, such as suspension, to strategies that help students acquire the skills to engage in positive behaviors. To that end, educators in the building have embraced restorative practices, in which students participate in conversations with their teachers and peers to discuss problems at school and at home.

A couple of years ago, the New Haven Federation of Teachers (NHFT), received a two-year grant for $300,000 from the American Federation of Teachers Innovation Fund toward this school discipline endeavor. The grant money is used to train teachers in restorative practices and to pay for a project director responsible for helping teachers apply these practices in their classrooms. This is a good example to follow, provide as much as possible to the development of teachers in order for them to become more effective in their classroom management and how they address problems involving children.

The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. Ey and Cupit’s (2011), article features children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their understanding. Children in small groups answered questions relating to what they consider dangerous interactions or materials connected with the Internet, management strategies they would employ if confronted with these, and who taught them what they knew. Many children reported prior negative experiences on the Internet. Although they identified several risk categories, when presented with potentially dangerous Internet interactions almost half were not able to identify the associated risks.

Most children identified appropriate management strategies; however, it was evident that children could not safely employ these because they were unable to recognize potential dangers. Just under half of the children indicated they had not been taught Internet safety. Internet risks for children can be reduced through education in their recognition of potential dangers, recall and management strategies, indicating a need for schools to incorporate Internet safety into curricula.

According to Rigby (2010), teachers and parents sometimes see bullying as predominantly physical. In fact, verbal bullying is far more common, and often at least as hurtful. Indirect bullying such as exclusion, rumor spreading and offensive electronic messaging can sometimes be the most hurtful of all and is about as common as physical bullying.

Nicholson (2011), focuses his article on bullying in schools. It cited the importance of knowing that bullying is not a civil wrong or a criminal offence and it does not fit into a legal framework. It cited the exacerbation of problems with cyber-bullying through modern technologies such as texting, email and Facebook. It notes relevant wrongs committed in the context of bullying including breach of statutory duty, negligence and assault.

Seidule and Pollack’s (2018), discusses the culture of child sexual abuse in schools in the U.S. It states that many schools are failing in their responsibility as in loco parentis to keep children safe from sexual abuse and have been covering up sexual abuse made by teachers to children, failing to investigate and report alleged abuse and allowing teachers to silently leave.

Goldman (2013), evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5–8 years. The results of his evaluation showed that the Guidance offers timely, definitive, wide-ranging, inclusive and effective sexuality education for children who are usually left “to find their own way”. The comparative results showed that the sampled Australian curriculum is woefully inadequate for the task of teaching puberty, sexuality and reproductive health and safety education.

Cox (2018), says that the first step into implementing any kind of management tool into your classroom is to be consistent. Consistency is the key, especially for those students who do not have it at home. Research shows that a large number of children experience instability in their home life. Change in family circumstance, such as family income, family structure, and family employment has a lot to do with it.

It is not just the families that face instability because of circumstances; it is also the families who have inconsistent parenting skills. Think back to when you were a child and your parents would say, “No means no.” Did you ever happen to find a loophole when your mother had just enough of you begging for the same thing over and over that she just caved in, and let you have what you wanted? This is exactly what you do not want to do in your classroom. Do not let your students find a loophole in your classroom management plan because the next time, you will have a hard time getting your rules to stick.

These are some of the laws which the researcher found useful to the study. Article XV, Section 3, 1987 Constitution, which implies that: The state shall defend the rights of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development. Another is Article XIV, Section 3, 1987 Constitution which underscores that “All educational institutions shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity and respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency”. Article III, Section 13, All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required.

Additionally, Article 218, 220, 233 of the Family Code of the Philippines presupposes: “Give the school, its administrators and teachers, or the individual, entity or institutions engaged in child care the special parental authority and responsibility over the minor child while under their supervision, instruction or custody”. Anent this, however, Presidential Decree 603, likewise states that that “Authority and responsibility shall apply to all authorized activities whether inside or outside the premises of the school, entity or institution.” This policy denotes that teachers and school personnel shall perform their duties and responsibilities in the school appurtenant to children’s welfare and protection.

The authority of the school to impose discipline can be traced from eight other sources. These are philosophy, the corporate law, the civil code, the revised penal code, Republic Act No.232 or popularly known as the Educational Act of 1982, Republic Act No. 10627 also referred to as the Anti-Bullying Act of 2013, DepEd Order No.40, S. 2012, and Republic Act No.7610.

As a philosophical thought, perhaps it is agreed that the right of the school to impose discipline emanates from its inherent responsibility to implement institutional goals and objectives.
The corporate right of schools to impose discipline is within the expressed powers granted to legally organized corporations under Section 13 paragraph 3 of Act No. 1459 better known as The Corporation Code of the Philippines.

The source of authority of school to impose discipline is the Civil Code. The code aptly defines the position of the teachers and professors in relation to their students. They are placed in the capacity of their parents or in loco parentis. This principle, however, demand the exercise of optimum supervision over the conduct of the students under their tutelage. It can be mentioned here that DO No.55, s. of 1987, dated October 7, 1987 advocates this principle in its instruction of students. Additionally the Presidential Decree 603 also known as The Child and Youth Welfare Code orders institutions, the school included, to help the State in the endeavor to prepare the child for the responsibilities of adulthood.

In more specific terms, the order encourages among other things, to strengthening of loco parentis, relation of teachers, instructors, professors and administrators with students through dialogues, socials and other similar activities. It is underscored in the order that progressive school management requires the schools to perform the role of substitute parents when students are under their control and supervision. The authority of school administrators and teachers under in-loco parentis principle is accompanied with certain responsibilities. Among its various provisions, there are specific provisions in the Civil Code which spell out clearly the responsibility of education personnel, to wit: Article 352, 356, 357 and 358. Article 352, the relations between teacher and pupil, professor and student, are fixed by government regulations and those of each school or institution. In no case shall corporal punishment be countenanced. The teacher or professor shall cultivate the best potentialities of the heart and mind of the pupil or student.

Article 356, every child: (3) shall be given moral and civic training by the parents or guardian; (4) has a right to live in an atmosphere conducive to his physical, moral and intellectual development. Article 357, every child shall: (2) respect his grandparents, old relatives, and persons holding substitute parental authority; Article 358, Every parent and every person holding substitute parental authority shall see to it that the rights of the child are respected and his duties complied with, and shall particularly, by precept and example, imbue the child with high-mindedness, love of country, veneration for the national heroes, fidelity to democracy as a way of life, and attachment to the ideal of permanent world peace.

With the context of Criminal Law, school administrators, teachers and professors area regarded as persons in authority in respect to two particular offenses under the Revised Penal Code. These are the crimes or direct assault as provided under Article 148 and 151. Article 148, direct assaults, - any person or persons who, without a public uprising, shall employ force or intimidation for the attainment of any of the purpose enumerated in defining the crimes of rebellion and sedition, or shall attack, employ force, or seriously intimidate or resist any person in authority or any of his agents, while engaged in the performance of official duties, or on occasion of such performance, shall suffer the penalty of prison correctional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine, when the assault is committed with a weapon or when the offender is a public officer or employee, or when the offender lays hands upon a person in authority.

If none of these circumstances be present, the penalty of prison correctional in its minimum period and a fine shall be imposed. Art. 151, resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents of such person, the penalty of arresto mayor and a fine shall be imposed upon any person who not being included in the provisions of the preceding articles shall resist or seriously disobey any person in authority, or the agents of such person, while engaged in the performance of official duties. When the disobedience to an agent of a person in authority is not of a serious nature, the penalty of arresto menor or a fine shall be imposed upon the offender.

Republic Act No. 232, or better known as the Educational Act of 1982 provides the latest and more specific provisions on rights, duties and parents relation to education. The provisions under Section 11, 12 and 14 of the law will enhance further the promotion of discipline in the educational communities. Section 11, (3) teachers shall be deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities, and shall, therefore, be accorded due respect and protection. Section 12, School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities, and shall therefore be accorded due respect and protection. Section 14, (3) parents shall cooperate with the school in the implementation of the school program curricular and co-curricular.

The fact that the duties and responsibilities of the different education personnel including parents are explicitly spelled out, it is hoped that there will be better coordination and support among administrators, teaching staff, students and parents. Pursuant to Republic Act No.232, the MECS Order 61, s., 1985 Dated October 2 and 8, 1985 was issue to the field to provide specific rules and regulations concerning student organization and their activities within their school campuses. Among others, the order aims to promote, enhance an ensure maintenance of a safe and orderly environment in school campuses, conducing to effective teaching and learning: to foster the spirit of shared purpose and cooperation among members and elements of the educational community particularly the students.

On September 12, 2013, Republic Act No. 10627, entitled “An Act Requiring all elementary and secondary schools to adopt policies to prevent and address the Acts of Bullying in their Institutions” was signed by President Aquino, officially placing executive imprimatur on the Bill passed by the 15th Congress. Also referred to as the “Anti-Bullying Act of 2013”, the law defines the act of bullying as “any severe or repeated use by one or more students of a written, verbal or electronic expression, or a physical act or gesture, or any combination thereof” that is “directed at another student.” Furthermore, such use must have the effect of “actually causing or placing the latter in reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to his property; creating a hostile environment at school for the other student; infringing on the rights of the other student at school; or materially and substantially disrupting the education process or the orderly operation of a school.”

The law includes a non-exclusive enumeration of such acts of bullying, thus: any unwanted physical contact between the bully and the victim like punching, pushing, etc. and the use of available objects as weapons; any act that causes damage to a victim’s psyche and/or emotional well-being; any slanderous statement or accusation that causes the victim undue emotional distress like directing foul language or profanity at the target, name-calling, etc.; and cyber-bullying or any bullying done through the use of technology or any electronic means.

Under the law, all elementary and secondary schools are required “to adopt policies to address the existence of bullying in their respective institutions.” Such policies shall be regularly updated and must include certain provisions as a minimum. One such provision is a prohibition on bullying in both school premises and in non school-related locations, if the act/s in question create a “hostile environment” at school for the victim, infringe on his rights or disrupt the educational process. A provision prohibiting retaliation against those who report bullying and through a system of anonymously reporting bullying acts is also required.

Schools covered are mandated by the law to “identify the range of disciplinary administrative actions that may be taken” against a bully which should be commensurate to the gravity of his offense. Clear procedures are also mandatory for: (1) Reporting acts of bullying or retaliation; (2) Responding promptly to and investigating reports of bullying or retaliation; (3) Restoring a sense of safety for a victim and assessing the student’s need for protection; (4) Protecting from bullying or retaliation of a person who reports acts of bullying and (5) Providing counselling or referral to appropriate services for perpetrators, victims and appropriate family members these students.

This also includes provisions that enable students to anonymously report bullying or retaliation: provided, however, that no disciplinary administrative action shall be taken against a perpetrator solely on the basis of an anonymous report; subject a student who knowingly makes a false accusation of bullying to disciplinary administrative action; educate students on the dynamics of bullying, the anti-bullying policies of the school as well as the mechanisms of such school for the anonymous reporting of acts of bullying or retaliation; educate parents and guardians about the dynamics of bullying, the anti-bullying policies of the school and how parents and guardians can provide support and reinforce such policies at home; and maintain a public record of relevant information and statistics on acts of bullying or retaliation in school: provided, that the names of students who committed acts of bullying or retaliation shall be strictly confidential and only made available to the school administration, teachers directly responsible for the said students and parents or guardians of students who are or have been victims of acts of bullying or retaliation.

The school principal or any person who holds a comparable role shall be responsible for the implementation and oversight of policies intended to address bullying. Any member of the school administration, student, parent or volunteer shall immediately report any instance of bullying or act of retaliation witnessed, or that has come to one’s attention, to the school principal or school officer or person so designated by the principal to handle such issues, or both.

Upon receipt of such a report, the school principal or the designated school officer or person shall promptly investigate. If it is determined that bullying or retaliation has occurred, the school principal or the designated school officer or person shall: notify the law enforcement agency if the school principal or designee believes that criminal charges under the Revised Penal Code may be pursued against the perpetrator; take appropriate disciplinary administrative action; notify the parents or guardians of the perpetrator; and notify the parents or guardians of the victim regarding the action taken to prevent any further acts of bullying or retaliation. If an incident of bullying or retaliation involves students from more than one school, the school first informed of the bullying or retaliation shall promptly notify the appropriate administrator of the other school so that both may take appropriate action.

DepEd Order No.40, s. 2012 known as DepEd Child Protection Policy cites that pursuant to the 1987 Constitution, the State shall defend the right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development. The Constitution further provides that all educational institutions shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) aims to protect children from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment and exploitation, including sexual abuse. The same Convention establishes the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively, and on the basis of equal opportunity, it obliges the government to take measures to encourage regular attendance in school and reduce dropout rates. Thus, it is mandated that all appropriate measures be undertaken to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child's human dignity, and in conformity with the CRC.

Towards this end, DepEd, in collaboration with its partners and stakeholders, shall ensure that all schools are conducive to the education of children. The best interest of the child shall be the paramount consideration in all decisions and actions involving children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities, and legislative bodies, consistent with the principle of First Call for Children, as enunciated in the CRC. Teachers and learning facilitators especially in learning centers are their substitute parents, and are expected to discharge their functions and duties with this in mind. In this connection, the Family Code empowers the school, its administrators and teachers, or the individual, entity or institution engaged in child care to exercise the special parental authority and responsibility over the child, while under their supervision, instruction or custody.

The department recognizes that cases of abuse may arise as a result of the difficult situations faced by teachers and other officials within and outside school.
DepEd has adopted the policy to provide special protection to children who are gravely threatened or endangered by circumstances which affect their normal development and over which they have no control, and to assist the concerned agencies in their rehabilitation.
Furthermore, this department aims to ensure such special protection from all forms of abuse and exploitation and care as is necessary for the child's well-being, taking into account the primary rights and duties of parents, legal guardians, or other individuals who are legally responsible and exercise custody over the child. DepEd recognizes the participatory rights of the child in the formulation and implementation of policies, and in all proceedings affecting them, whether they be victims or aggressors, either directly, or through a representative.
Accordingly, this department reiterates a zero tolerance policy for any act of child abuse, exploitation, violence, discrimination, bullying and other forms of abuse, and hereby promulgates this Department Order.

Republic Act No. 7610, also known as an act providing for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination and for other purpose. Article 1, Section 1 is an act shall be known as the Special Protection of Children against abuse, exploitation, and discrimination act. Section 2 on the other hand provides special protection to children from all forms of abuse, neglect, cruelty exploitation and discrimination and other conditions, prejudicial their development; provide sanctions for their commission and carry out a program for prevention and deterrence of and crisis intervention in situations of child abuse, exploitation and discrimination. The State shall intervene on behalf of the child when the parent, guardian, teacher or person having care or custody of the child fails or is unable to protect the child against abuse, exploitation and discrimination or when such acts against the child are committed by the said parent, guardian, teacher or person is having care and custody of the same. It shall be the policy of the State to protect and rehabilitate children gravely threatened or endangered by circumstances which affect or will affect their survival and normal development and over which they have no control.

The best interests of children shall be the paramount consideration in all actions concerning them, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities, and legislative bodies, consistent with the principle of First Call for Children as enunciated in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. Every effort shall be exerted to promote the welfare of children and enhance their opportunities for a useful and happy life.

In Section 3, it clearly defines what child abuse is, "Child abuse" refers to the maltreatment, whether habitual or not, of the child which includes any of the following: (1) psychological and physical abuse, neglect, cruelty, sexual abuse and emotional maltreatment; (2) any act by deeds or words which debases, degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth and dignity of a child as a human being; (3) unreasonable deprivation of his basic needs for survival, such as food and shelter; or (4) failure to immediately give medical treatment to an injured child resulting in serious impairment of his growth and development or in his permanent incapacity or death.
The school, primarily, is a place for learning, gathering information and skills that are essential to a child’s integration to the adult world. It aims to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, vocational efficiency and to teach the duties of citizenship. The school as zone of peace (DepEd Order No. 44, s. 2005), provides the special environment for the formal, physical, mental, emotional and moral growth of the young.

Article 349 of the New Civil Code provides among others, that teachers shall exercise substitute parental authority in relation to their students. While the law provides or assign them that legal authority of natural parents in a substitute capacity, they are however, answerable for any damage or injury caused on other people by the tortuous actions of their students as long as the latter remain under their supervision and control.
Pursuant to Section I, Chapter III, Part IV of 2000 DECS Service Manual, every school shall maintain discipline inside the school campus as well as the school premises when students are engaged in activities authorized by the school. As stated in paragraph 2, Section 6.2, Rule VI from Rules and Regulations of RA 9155 as mentioned in DepEd Order No. 1, s. 2003, the school head shall have authority, accountability and responsibility for creating an environment within the school that is conducive to teaching and learning. Thus, school officials and teachers shall have the right to impose appropriate and reasonable disciplinary measures in case of minor offenses or infractions of good discipline.

Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possess dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence whom strictly adhere to observe and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standard and values. (Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers Preamble).

Section 1 is about creation of school discipline committee. There shall be a committee, which will handle grave/major offenses as stated in the 2000 DECS Service Manual. They shall be composed of chair, co-chair and member. The school principal shall designate school disciplinary officer per curriculum year level. He/she shall also designate curriculum chairman and class adviser per curriculum year level.

Section 2 is about duties and responsibilities of school discipline committee. The committee shall have the following specific duties and responsibilities. The School Discipline Officer as the chairman, (a) he/she shall serve as prefect of discipline within the curriculum year level. (b) he/she shall investigate cases listed on the offenses punishable by suspension or expulsion depending on the seriousness of the offense as stated in Paragraph 1.1.2, Section 1, Chapter III, Part IV of 2000 DECS Service Manual. (c) he/she shall secure records with confidentiality. (d) he/she shall serve as mediator between the offender and the aggrieved party.

The School Curriculum Chairman as co-chairman; (a) he/she shall serve as co-prefect of discipline within the year level in the absence of school discipline officer who shall investigate cases listed on the offenses punishable by suspension or expulsion depending on the seriousness of the offense, (b) he/she shall secure records with confidentiality, (c) he/she shall serve as mediator between the offender and the aggrieved party.

The Class Adviser as member; (a) he/she shall serve as liaison between the school and the parents or guardians, (b) he/she shall write letters to call the attention of parents or guardians to invite for a conference, (c) prepare the anecdotal report and safeguard confidentiality.
Section 3 is about referral. All cases beyond the control and expertise of School Discipline Committee shall be referred to the following offices and furnish copy of referral attached with anecdotal report and other supporting documents for more extensive supervision and control.

Referral to the following is made: (1) Office of the principal is made if; (a) the case needs administrative action and (b) if the case needs for referral to other government agency and private institutions. (2) Office of guidance and counselling if; (a) the client manifests deviant and maladjustment behaviours, (b) the client violates the school rules and regulations in spite of signing the behavior contract, and (c) the client needs to seek professional help.
Section 4 is about jurisprudence. All minor offenses or infractions of good discipline shall be handled first by class advisers. However, if the case is a grave offense, the class adviser is expected to refer the case to the School Discipline Committee. They shall call the attention of parents or guardians for a short conference and prepare the anecdotal report. When the parties involved are between and/or among different year levels, the jurisdiction of school discipline officer shall be based on the year level of the primary offender. The School Grievances and Complaints Committee (SGCC) shall handle all sensitive cases and when the parties involved are between or among students and teaching and/or non-teaching staff.

Section 5 is about guidelines in attendance and punctuality. The following guidelines in attendance and punctuality shall be observed. (a) Regularity of attendance and punctuality are required in all classes. A student who has been absent or has cut classes is required to present a letter of explanation from his/her parents or guardians or to bring them to school for a short conference with the section adviser or guidance counsellor as the case may be. (b)Attendance of students in special holidays, activities relative to their religions shall be allowed provided permission of the school head is sought. (c) A student who incurs absences of more than twenty percent (20%) of the prescribed number of class or laboratory periods during the school year or term should be given a failing grade and given no credits for the course or subject.
Furthermore, the school head may at his/her discretion and in the individual case exempt, a student who exceeds the twenty percent limit for reasons considered valid and acceptable to the school. Such discretion shall not excuse the student concerned from responsibility in keeping up with lesson assignments and taking examinations where indicated. The discretionary authority is vested in the school head, and may not be availed of by a student nor granted by a faculty member without the consent of the school head. Habitual tardiness especially during the first period in the morning and in the afternoon shall not be allowed. Teachers concerned shall call for the parents of the student or visit him/her at home.

Section 6 is about guidelines for the school uniform. The guidelines for the school uniform are the following: (a) A school uniform shall be prescribed for all students “as per agreement.” Shoes are considered part of the uniform. (b) The prescribed uniform for boys: white polo with school logo; straight cut black pants; black leather or rubber shoes and white pair of socks. (c) The prescribed uniform for girls: white blouse with sports collar and school logo; navy/dark blue pleated skirt five inches below the knee and black closed leather shoes. (d) All students shall be required to wear the official school ID in the school campus. (e) The acceptable haircut for boys shall be at least one (1) inch above the ear and three (3) inches above the collar line.

Section 7 is about categories of offenses to the school rules and regulations. The following offenses shall be categorized as: (a) Grave Offense. The offenses punishable by suspension or expulsion depending on the seriousness of the offense stated in Paragraph 1.1.2, Section 1, Chapter III, Part IV of 2000 DECS Service Manual are considered grave offenses. Gross misconduct; cheating and stealing; assaulting a teacher or any other school authority or his agents or students; smoking inside the school premises; vandalism, writing on or destroying school property like chairs, tables, windows, books, laboratory equipment and others; gambling of any sort; drinking intoxicants and liquor; carrying and concealing deadly weapons; extortion or asking money from others; fighting causing injury to others; using, possessing, and selling of prohibited drugs; hazing in any form or manner whether inside or outside the school premises; immorality or sexual harassment; instigating, leading or participating in concerned activities leading to stoppage of classes; preventing, threatening students or faculty members or school authorities from discharging their duties or from attending classes or entering school premises; forging or tampering with school records or transfer forms. (b) Minor Offense. The minor offenses or infractions of good discipline to school rules and regulations are the following: Absenteeism, cutting of classes and tardiness; failure to wear prescribed uniform; wearing of cap and the like inside the school building specially inside the classroom, wearing of earrings for the boys and more than a pair of earrings for the girls, outlandish hairstyles, painting of tattoo, over accessories and body piercing; patronizing suspected prostitution den, gambling and pornographic places; using profane language to insult another; littering inside the school campus specially inside the classroom and corridors; loitering and staying inside or outside the school during class hour; bringing, using and selling of pornographic materials; using different gadgets like cellular phones , ipad, psp, etc. during class hour; public display of affection like holding hands, hugging, kissing, necking, petting and fondling; unruly behavior during assemblies, religious services, etc; going to restricted places; selling stolen goods in school; refusal to display school ID prominently and placing stickers and other objects on school ID; sitting on tables, standing on benches as sitting with feet up and legs wide apart; writing or drawing on a fellow student’s books and notebooks; borrowing without returning; spending for personal use of funds entrusted to him/her; refusing to obey a student leader when the latter is discharging his/her duty or representing an authority; irresponsibly playful like pulling chair away when one is about to sit, hiding another’s property, blocking another’s path, etc.; jumping over the fence; disrespectful to the national flag and singing of national anthem; spitting elsewhere; chewing of bubble gum inside the school during class hour and placing of bubble gum on chairs, walls, etc.; putting make-up and face powder during class hour; urinating elsewhere or in inappropriate places; voyeurism; not giving letter to parents; bullying including physical, emotional, mental and cyber-bullying.

Section 8 Penal Provisions. (a) The school head have mandated of authority, accountability and responsibility for creating an environment conducive to teaching and learning within the school that is he/she be the only deemed person in authority. The principal as the school head is therefore in power to determine and execute the necessary sanction mandated by the school rules and regulations. (b) In the exercise of discretion given to the principal, all submitted reports and recommendations by the various levels of officers (guidance counsellor, school discipline officer, curriculum chairman and class advisers) shall be considered supportive and guidelines for proper basis of judgment, fair and just decision.
In case of irresponsible and undesirable behavior, the following sanctions may be imposed: (a) Oral warning and written reprimand. The violator shall be reminded on his/her misbehaviour and shall sign on the behavior contract together with his/her parent/guardian. The case should be recorded in the confidential log book. (b) Probationary. The violator shall be required to undergo therapy. There are two types of therapy: the school therapy and home therapy. In school therapy, the student shall be given school tasks that aim to develop his/her sense of responsibility, moral character and personal discipline under the supervision of guidance counsellor, school discipline officer and class adviser. On the other hand, home therapy shall be given to student who needs parental guidance. He/she shall be given tasks that aim to develop his/her intra personal skills under the supervision of guidance counsellor, school discipline officer, class adviser and parents/guardians. (c) Suspension. The violator may be suspended for a fixed period. It will be recorded in the student’s anecdotal record. (d) Expulsion. The violator shall be banned on enrolment. His/her right to avail free public education shall be terminated.

The student handbook contains policies and guidelines of the school. This gives information about different policies of the school namely: the proper dress code for students; haircut and physical appearance; wearing of school identification card and gate pass; absences, tardiness and cutting of classes. This also tackles the issue about discipline namely: discipline in academics, discipline in actions and behavior; discipline on violation of other’s rights; and discipline in tarnishing the honour of the school. The school also adopted punishments regarding violations from DECS Service Manual 2000.