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· Volume V Issue III


There have been multiple empirical shreds of evidence that leadership can impact school performance, student achievement, student outcome, as well as work performance and morale of the staff. Yet, it was not made clear which competencies of leadership can greatly explain school performance. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the school heads perform their instructional supervision role in the classroom, teacher observation, teacher visitation, and demonstration. The research also aimed to identify the influence of instructional supervision of school heads on teachers’ competence. At the end of the study, the researcher aimed to propose a Learning Action Cell Framework. To achieve these objectives, the researcher used a descriptive method of study using survey questionnaires as the main tool. After collecting primary data, the researcher found out that School Heads perform their tasks and duties well especially during class observation as part of the instructional supervision roles. Most respondents agree to a very high extent that during teacher visitation, school heads conduct pre- and post-observation conferences, conduct walkthroughs along classrooms, and mentor teachers on content and pedagogy and student disciplines. Moreover, this study also revealed that teacher demonstration including the teacher’s competence in the teaching and learning process is greatly influenced by the instructional supervision role of School Heads as reflected by the responses given by the respondents. Based on the findings it is concluded that classroom observation provided evidence of a positive learning environment, effective classroom management, engaging and challenging instruction, student collaboration, and student creativity.

KEYWORDS: Instructional Supervision, School Heads’ role, Descriptive, Division of Batangas District of San Juan



There are still school heads in the Division of Batangas who are non-passers of the principals’ test. In fact, there have been low numeracy and literacy rate, low academic performance, the limited number of highly proficient and expert teachers, and a limited number of schools in the advanced level of School-Based Management. Subsequently, some school heads experienced difficulty in managing schools. With the issues and concerns mentioned above and the lacked of common understanding of school performance, it was deemed necessary to find out if the leadership and core behavioral competencies of school heads can significantly influence school performance.

With this, the Department of Education (DepEd) Order No. 24 series of 2020 implemented the National Adoption and Implementation of the Philippine Professional Standards for School Heads which is in line with the commitment of the DepEd to support school heads so they can better perform their role in schools, including the improvement of teacher quality. DepEd recognizes the importance of professional standards in the continuing professional development and advancement of school heads based on the principles of career-long learning. It upholds that quality student learning is contingent upon quality teachers, who are supported by quality school leaders.

DepEd order No, 35 s. 2016 also stated that it is expected that school heads or principals will be vital in facilitating and implementing effective LACs within their schools. This function will be included in the performance evaluation of school heads. They will create safe spaces where teachers can engage in dialogue with each other so they may learn from and provide support to one another.

The changes brought about by various national and global frameworks such as the K to 12 Basic Education Program, ASEAN Integration, globalization, and the changing character of twenty-first century learners necessitate a call for the rethinking of the standards for school heads. With this, the present study posits that this assessment of the school heads’ role in school-based instructional supervision in the public secondary schools in order to propose a learning action cell (LAC) framework.