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· Volume V Issue II


During the School Year 2022-2023 in Valencia City and Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, this research focused on the pivotal role of school heads in educational organizations. School administrators, serving as leaders, bear significant responsibilities and are key figures in fostering instructional capacity within their institutions. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the instructional leadership and overall performance of school heads, recognizing the importance of their influence on the smallest organizational unit—the teachers. The research encompassed 290 randomly selected teachers and 168 purposively chosen school heads, employing a descriptive-correlational approach. The study delved into various facets, including the examination of school heads' characteristics, self-perceived instructional leadership, teacher-perceived instructional leadership, and the overall assessment of their performance. Utilizing modified questionnaires from Ledesma (2018), the research utilized statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation to analyze the data. Results indicated that the majority of school heads held master's degrees, some with additional PhD units, and possessed 15 to 19 years of experience. Notably, they demonstrated excellence in instructional leadership, receiving high ratings from both teachers and fellow school heads. While their overall performance was generally satisfactory, strengths were identified in relationship-building, with opportunities for growth in self and leadership development. Discrepancies in perception between school heads and teachers were observed, particularly in areas related to goals and instruction supervision. However, alignment was evident in aspects such as professional development, resource management, and incentives. The study underscored the positive correlation between attending seminars and enhanced instructional leadership, emphasizing the imperative role of ongoing professional development for school heads. As a culmination, the research proposed the development of a strategic leadership program by the Schools Division, tailored to the specific needs of school heads in instructional leadership, based on competency frameworks and practical learning.

Keywords: demographic characteristics, instructional leadership, and school heads’ performance


School heads have more responsibility and accountability in the organization. The foundation of instructional capacity lies in the ability of the teachers, the administrator who serves as the leader, to handle the smallest unit in an organization. Managing a school is analogous to driving a car. It is often up-hill alongside what at times may seem overwhelming odds. Supervisory function is difficult, requiring complete commitment. According to Brandon et al. (2017), instructional leadership roles play pivotal roles in leading institutions to their path to erudition.

Undeniably, school heads who form the core of the school leadership team are increasingly touted as important determinants of school performance. Existing research on effective schools suggests that effective school heads influence a variety of school outcomes, including student achievement, through their recruitment and motivation of quality teachers, their ability to identify and articulate school vision and goals, their effective allocation of resources, and their development of instructional structures to support instruction and learning (Horng, Kalogrides, & Loeb, 2019).

The position of school heads was chosen for investigation because it has been identified as an important component of an effective school. However, in spite of the endless and untiring efforts of the school heads, teachers, parents, and other stakeholders to address the issues confronting public schools, the ability of the Philippines, as one of the signatories in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, to meet the Millennium Development Goals for 2025 in the three areas most fundamental to human life (poverty alleviation, health, and education) is very remote. Improving the quality of basic education in the Philippines has become more critical and urgent than ever. For the majority of Filipinos who suffer from the various consequences of poverty, a good education is the only hope of it.

With this perspective, the researcher recognized this premise based on the evidence that once the school heads or organizations implement the concepts of strong instructional leadership in their respective schools, it improves the overall school performance. For these, this assessment's results can be the basis for a leadership-enabling program.

This study is anchored on the Trait Leadership Theory by Carlyle (1941). The trait theory of leadership suggests that certain inborn or innate qualities and characteristics make someone a leader. These qualities might be personality factors, physical factors, intelligence factors, and so on. In essence, trait theory proposes that the leader and leaders' traits are central to an organization's success. The assumption here is that finding people with the right traits will increase organizational performance. Trait theory focuses exclusively on the leader and neglects the follower.

According to Mango (2018), Stogdill's groundbreaking effort marked one of the earliest comprehensive endeavors to assess trait-based leadership research. This pivotal study meticulously examined more than a hundred research papers spanning a four-decade timeframe. Stogdill's findings revealed that individuals in leadership roles exhibited superiority in various aspects compared to the typical group member, such as intelligence, academic achievement, reliability, and social skills. Though Stogdill determined that there was a high consistency in the relationship between intelligence and being a leader, he concluded that it is difficult to isolate a set of traits characteristic of leadership without factoring situational effects into the equation. A leader in some situations might not be a leader in other situations.

In the realm of instructional leadership, the application of trait leadership theory has been instrumental in pinpointing the qualities and attributes crucial for school leaders aiming to enhance the quality of teaching and learning. Several pivotal traits have been recognized within this framework, including intelligence, innovation, adaptability, empathy, and resoluteness, as outlined by Lakomski and Evers (2021). Trait theory suggests that effective leadership is based on certain personal traits and characteristics of the leader. In the context of instructional leadership, this theory suggests that successful leaders possess certain qualities that enable them to improve teaching and learning in their schools.

In a study conducted by Parveen, Tran, Kumar, and Shah (2022), it was observed that certain traits, specifically a deep understanding of instructional processes, a clear vision, and proficient communication skills, exhibited a positive correlation with effective instructional leadership. The research highlighted that leaders equipped with a strong grasp of instructional processes were more adept at facilitating the professional growth of teachers, resulting in enhanced student performance. Furthermore, leaders who effectively conveyed their vision for the school and actively engaged stakeholders demonstrated a greater ability to drive positive transformations within the educational setting.

Studies have indicated that instructional leaders who possess these attributes are more adept at establishing constructive connections with educators and other involved parties, fostering an environment of trust and cooperation, and facilitating the growth of teachers (Munna, 2023). For instance, leaders characterized by creativity and adaptability can effectively respond to evolving situations and innovate new approaches to assist both teachers and students. Additionally, leaders who exhibit empathy are proficient at forging robust bonds with teachers and comprehending their requirements and apprehensions.

It is worth acknowledging that Trait Leadership Theory has its share of limitations. One critique of this theory is its presumption that leadership effectiveness hinges exclusively on inherent traits, disregarding the influence of situational elements and contextual factors (Miles, 2022). In essence, a leader's effectiveness can be shaped by variables like organizational culture, the attributes of the school community, and the unique challenges confronted by the school.

Figure 1 presents the interplay of the variables of the study. It shows that the independent variable is instructional leadership which is measured by communicating goals, supervising instruction, promoting professional development, managing resources, and providing incentives. In Brolund's study (2017), instructional leadership is a multifaceted construct that comprises several distinct dimensions. Firstly, communicating goals involves the capacity of educational leaders to effectively articulate the educational objectives, priorities, and long-term goals of the institution to staff and stakeholders, fostering a shared vision and direction. Secondly, supervising instruction pertains to the active oversight and guidance provided by educational leaders in monitoring and evaluating instructional practices, ensuring alignment with established educational standards and goals.

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