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School of Graduates and Professional Studies

· Volume V Issue III


Science process skills are crucial for students to grasp scientific concepts thoroughly, alongside with the learners’ cognitive performance. However, observations suggest that not all young learners in public elementary schools can think critically, limiting the majority's ability to apply these skills to real-world problems. This study aimed to determine the level of proficiency in Science process skills and learners’ cognitive performance in Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon. Specifically, it sought to 1) find the respondents' proficiency level in Science process skills, 2) find the respondents' level of cognitive performance, and 3) determine the significant relationship between the respondents’ proficiency in Science process skills and their cognitive performance. There were one hundred fifty (150) Grade V learners in the schools where this study was conducted. A questionnaire was patterned and modified from the self-learning modules and a summative test in Science 5 of the Department of Education was used in the study. A descriptive correlational method of research was employed in the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean score, mean percentage, standard deviation, and Spearman's Rho Correlation.

The study revealed that learners' proficiency in Science process skills did not meet expectations except for measuring and classifying skills, which are satisfactory. Additionally, the learners' level of cognitive performance in Science in all areas did not meet the expectations. There was a significant relationship between learners' proficiency in Science process skills except in observing, controlling variables, and hypothesizing. There is a disparity in the proficiency in Science process skills, a gap in cognitive performance, and a meaningful relationship between Science process skills and cognitive performance among Grade V learners. It is recommended that teachers should improve their art of questioning for cognitive evaluation to guide learners in answering difficult questions. Link hypothesizing to real-world applications, fostering data evaluation through interactive learning, and embracing sensemaking to enhance skills and performance to cultivate a dynamic Science learning environment where Grade V learners thrive with curiosity and understanding.

Keywords: Science Process Skills, Cognitive Performance



Science Process Skills are essential for students to develop a deep understanding of scientific concepts and principles. These skills enable them to conduct scientific investigations, analyze data, and make informed decisions based on evidence. However, observed scenarios in the Science classes have been noted wherein only some of the young learners in public elementary schools are able to think critically, hindering the majority of the learners from applying these process skills to solve real-world problems. When group work is done, only the leaders of the groups understand the application of Science concepts to the activities. Hence, this holds true in Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon, as the district-level consolidated First Quarter Curriculum Management Support System (CMSS) proficiency level in Science, of which results reflect the chains of assessment results (authentic and traditional assessments) involving remembering, understanding, analyzing, evaluating, creating and applying Science process skills, revealed that out of six hundred fifteen (615) Grade V learners, only 18.54% have mastered these skills.

In the Philippines, the Department of Education recognizes the importance of developing Science process skills among students. It has integrated them into the Science curriculum to help students be prepared for the demands of the 21st century and enable them to become scientifically literate individuals who can contribute to the advancement of society. One way to attain this is the issuance of DepEd Order No. 21, s. 2019, or the Policy Guidelines on the Implementation of the K to 12 Science Curriculum, provides the framework for the teaching of Science in the K to 12 Program to emphasize the importance of developing Science process skills, such as observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, communicating, and experimenting. Another is DepEd Memorandum No. 175, s. 2017, or the Conduct of the 2017 National Science and Technology Fair, to promote the development of Science process skills among elementary pupils. The memorandum encourages schools to participate in the annual Science and Technology Fair, which provides a platform for pupils to showcase their knowledge and skills in Science.

Unfortunately, the 2019 National Achievement Test results showed that only 44.52% of Grade 6 students in the Philippines passed the Science test. This indicates that a significant number of elementary pupils lack proficiency in Science process skills. The study also revealed that pupils with higher proficiency in Science process skills had higher achievement in Science. One of the reasons for the low proficiency of elementary pupils in Science process skills is the lack of emphasis on these skills in the classroom. A study by Widodo and Budijastuti (2020) found that teachers tend to focus on teaching theoretical concepts rather than Science process skills. This results in pupils having limited opportunities to develop their skills in observing, classifying, measuring, inferring, predicting, and communicating.

Moreover, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, 2019) results indicated that the Philippines ranked 78th out of 79 countries in Science proficiency (Bernardo et al., 2023). This is a significant drop from its previous ranking of 69th in 2015. The results showed that only 1.8% of Filipino students reached the highest level of proficiency in Science, while 29.5% scored below the minimum level of proficiency. This indicates a serious problem in the quality of Science education in the country.

Problems regarding the proficiency level of learners in Science process skills do not just arise in the Philippines but in the international arena as well. Studies have shown that many students lack proficiency in these skills, which can hinder their ability to learn Science effectively (Kuiper, 2018). This problem is particularly acute in developing countries, where resources for Science education are limited, and teachers may not have the necessary training or support to teach Science process skills (Abdullahi, 2019) effectively.

If these problems are left unresolved, it would imply that students may have difficulties interpreting and analyzing scientific data. For instance, students may struggle to identify patterns or draw conclusions from data, which can hinder their ability to understand scientific concepts. Additionally, it can hinder students' ability to conduct scientific investigations. For example, students may struggle to design experiments or make accurate measurements, which can lead to unreliable results. This can also impact their ability to make accurate predictions or hypotheses, which are essential components of scientific inquiry and career success in the long run.

Significantly, it is crucial for the Philippines to improve the proficiency of students in Science process skills. This is because these skills are essential not only in science but also in everyday life. Students who are proficient in Science process skills are better equipped to make informed decisions and solve problems. The proficiency of students in Science process skills in the Philippines needs improvement.

Thus, it is in this context that this study was conducted to find the level of the learners’ proficiency in Science process skills and their cognitive performance in Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon, SY 2023-2024.

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