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· Volume V Issue III


This study attempted to determine the level of problem-solving skills among Grade 5 learners in West I, Cagayan de Oro City during the school year 2022-2023. Specifically, this study sought to: a) describe the respondents’ characteristics; b) identify the level of the respondents’ problem-solving skills in Mathematics based on literacy and numeracy skills; and c) determine the significant relationship between the respondents’ problem-solving skills in Mathematics and each of their characteristics.

The respondents of the study were the one hundred forty-five (145) grade five learners in West I District, Division of Cagayan de Oro City. A descriptive survey method of research design was used in this study. The data were processed using descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency, mean, and standard deviation to describe the variables in the study. However, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was utilized to determine the significant relationship between the respondent’s problem-solving skills and their characteristics. Survey questionnaire on problem-solving skills were adapted and modified from the Grade Five Mathematics self-learning modules of the Department of Education.

The findings revealed that the respondents’ problem-solving skills on literacy (e.g. identifying what is asked, identifying what are facts given, identifying of operation used and formulation of number sentence) were satisfactory. Meanwhile, the respondents’ numeracy skill (problem-solution) was poor.

Learners who are struggling to solve mathematical problems, particularly those involving literacy skills like identifying what is given and what operation to use may find it challenging to link the mathematical ideas in the numeracy skills involving formulating number sentences and problem-solution.

Also, study habits show a great impact in respondents’ problem solving skills by helping them in identifying relevant information and come up with effective solutions. It also contributed to the respondents’ academic success and a salient factor in identifying the level of the respondents’ problem solving skills in Mathematics.

Keywords: Problem Solving Skills, Mathematics



Many learners struggled to solve mathematical problems since it requires an array of skills such as discovering, analysing, and solving problems. This has been a struggle not only to the parents, but also to the teachers who are considered the second parents in the school.

Most of the teachers in Mathematics complain of the inability of the learners to solve mathematics problem. In fact, many of them find it challenging to comprehend mathematics. This occurs as a result of Mathematics being presented in a way that is less engaging and appears challenging to understand. As a result, learners frequently feel uninterested in the class and have poor engagement. In addition, the teaching strategies used by teachers tend to limit learners ability to express them creatively while learning, which makes them less motivated to learn mathematics and results in learning that are less than ideal. Most learners do not understand the significance of mathematics in everyday life and they are more passive, reluctant, afraid and shy in expressing their ideas in solving problems.

In the recent result of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2019 (TIMSS) revealed that Filipino students lagged behind other countries in the international assessment for Mathematics and Science for grade four. The Philippines only scored 297 in Mathematics and 249 in Science, which are “significantly lower” than any other participating country. TIMSS is an assessment given to grades four and eight students. The result showed that in Mathematics, only 19% of Filipino students were on the low benchmark, which means that they had “some basic mathematical knowledge”, while 81% did not even reach this level. It also showed that learners can add, subtract, multiply, and divide one- and two-digit whole numbers. They can solve simple word problems. They have some knowledge of simple fractions and common geometric shapes. Students can read and complete simple bar graphs and tables.

Despite the poor performance of Filipino students in Mathematics, the Department of Education (DepEd) reiterated its commitment to ensure the provision of quality education for all Filipino learners. It helps further our efforts to raise the quality of education in the country. Moreover, Department of Education Order No. 18, s 2017 was issued stating the Guidelines on the Utilization of the 2017 Every Child a Reader Program (ECARP) Funds for the Early Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Program: Professional Development Component. These guidelines shall cover the expansion of the professional development component of the program described in Department of Education Order No. 12, s. 2015 entitled Guidelines on the Early Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Program: Professional Development Component. The Program aims to develop in Filipino children the literacy and numeracy skills, and attitudes, which will contribute to lifelong learning. With this, it is the goal of the Department to improve the literacy and numeracy skills of learners from Kindergarten to Grade 3 following the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum by establishing a sustainable and cost-effective professional development system for teachers.

Since problem-solving skills are central importance in Mathematics today, learners are provided with problems that are new to them and find ways and steps to solve it. It also used visual representation to help them understand the problem better and improve their mathematical reasoning. Through visual representation, learners can have clearer vision on what has been asked in the problem. And it seems that everybody agrees that problem-solving skills are important and should be improved. Above all, Russel (2019) mentioned that learning how to solve problems in mathematics knows what to look for. Mathematics problems often require established procedures and knowing what procedure to apply. In order to create procedures, one must be aware of the problem situation, be able to gather the necessary data, establish a plan or strategies, and employ the strategy in the right way.

Thus, it is on this premise that this study is undertaken to identify the learner’s problem-solving skills in Mathematics. Likewise, the vision of DepEd in providing high-quality education in a more holistic approach will be realized without compromising the other aspects of students’ development.

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