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Malinao National High School
Bicol College

· Volume V Issue IV


The K-12 curriculum was the enhancement of the basic education program known as the Republic Act No. 10533. This includes the incorporation of Accountancy, Business, and Management strand that focuses on developing the students’ mathematical skills, creativity, and business intellect to prepare them become great business professionals. This study was projected to determine the learning challenges in the accounting cycle among the Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM) students in the province of Albay. The results of which were used as a basis in developing a learning packet that may help these students address those learning challenges and become an NC III-Bookkeeping passer to achieve the aims of the K-12 curriculum which are to prepare the graduates for tertiary education, employment, and entrepreneurship. The study utilized the mixed method both quantitative and qualitative. The findings revealed the following: Most of the ABM students have low mastery in preparing trial balance, adjusting and closing entries. Thus, the Learning Packet on these areas were prepared. Most of these students were unaware of the bookkeeping assessment. The factors that affect students’ preparation in the NC III Bookkeeping Assessment were knowledge, time, financial, school, self, information, and health. The needed support of these students was classified into intellectual, moral/emotional, supervision, spiritual, time, and financial support.

Keywords: Accounting Cycle, Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM), Learning Packet, Province of Albay, Philippines



In the dynamic landscape of education, the Senior High School curriculum plays a vital role in shaping the future of students by providing them with diverse knowledge and skills. Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM) stands out as key components in preparing students for the complexities of the global, ASEAN, Philippines, and Bicol regional business environments.

The Accountancy, Business, and Management strand serves as a foundational platform for students to develop a comprehensive understanding of financial principles, business strategies, and management concepts. As the business landscape keeps on growing, the importance of instilling these skills in the younger generation cannot be inflated.

The accounting cycle is contained within the Fundamentals of Accountancy, Business, and Managements (FABM) I and II subjects. It is a fundamental concept in accounting that involves a series of steps to record and summarize the financial transactions of an organization. It is a process that begins with the identification and recording of transactions and ends with the preparation of financial statements. It is critical for businesses because it provides a systematic approach to track financial transactions, measuring profitability, and making informed decisions. This process helps businesses maintain accurate and reliable financial records that are essential for decision-making, compliance, and reporting (Kimmel, Weygandt, & Kieso, 2019). This topic is usually challenging to ABM students.

On a global scale, the course addresses the challenges and opportunities presented by the international business arena. Students gain insights into global economic trends and facts of multinational corporations. This prepares them to navigate the complexities of the global market and get a chance to support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that the UN has established, particularly on SDG No. 8, Decent work, and economic growth. In fact, employment and business are major reasons for the economic growth of the country. The study of V.W. Putri & S.M. Budiyanto (2023) on the Analysis of Students Difficulties in Completing the Service Company Accounting Cycle Learning in Class X and XI AKL Students of SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Karanganyar. The results showed that there were several difficulties experienced by students in completing the accounting cycle.

In the context of the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), students are equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to engage with ASEAN member republics, fostering collaboration and understanding differences of conducting business. Fast economic growth in Southeast Asia demands a skilled workforce capable of accounting practices. However, research suggests similar challenges among ASEAN nations that include limited teacher-student interaction due to large class size which prevents personalized learning, lack of learning materials, and the integration of technology that lessens the chances for interactive learning. Another study published in Atlantis Press, (2020) A study Nurlaili, (2019) in University Banten Jaya Serang, Indonesia on An Analysis of Students’ Difficulties in Completing of the Adjusting Entries, indicated that students had difficulty completing adjusting entries material. Therefore, it was necessary to assess the difficulties faced by students regarding the material in adjusting entries as well as errors that were often made so that prevention and improvement can be made in learning activities.

At the national level, students are prepared to contribute to the growth and development of the Philippine economy by fostering entrepreneurship, ethical business practices, and sustainable management. In which Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) No. 8, Decent work, and economic growth, may also be attained. The K-12 curriculum that is also known as the Republic Act No. 10533 or An Act of Enhancing the Basic Education in the Philippines that was signed by the former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III on May 15, 2013, and was formally implemented in the Philippines in the year 2016. The law added a new program that includes another two years to the basic education curriculum, the Senior High School (SHS), which aims to prepare graduates for tertiary education, employment, and entrepreneurship. This includes the incorporation of ABM or Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM) strand that focuses on developing the students’ mathematical skills, creativity, and business intellect, which include learning accounting and bookkeeping to prepare them to become great business professionals. The study of Abella, R.C. (2019) on A Close Look at the Needs and Challenges Faced by Senior High School Students of the Accountancy, Business, and Management Strand had a goal to gain a deeper understanding of the demands and difficulties that Senior High School ABM students at Simala National High School in Cebu had when learning how to solve real-world business problems.

Zooming in on the Bicol region, the course tailors its content to the local context, taking into consideration the business opportunities in the area. This localized approach ensures that students are not only globally and nationally competitive but are also attuned to the specific needs and dynamics of their regional setting. A study of Bongalonta, M.B. & Bongalonta, M.M. (2022) on Accounting Learning Gaps of K-12 Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM) Graduates: Basis for Remediation Program for BSA Program of Sorsogon State University, revealed that student-respondents (S.Y. 2021-2022) were found to have weakness or very little accounting knowledge and skills were attributed to some factors such as limited accounting background and proper preparation, lack of calculation skills, non-integration of accounting lessons into real-life context, limited physical and human resources are available for the implementation of the ABM Strand and the students study habits and approaches.

The mere fact that businesses in the country are fast growing everywhere, there is a great chance that the Sustainable Development Goal No. 1 and 2, no poverty and zero hunger respectively, may be addressed gradually. In addition, if businesses keep on increasing, it is an indication that there is also a dire need for more bookkeeping qualifiers. Besides, producing an NC passer also means that the aim of the K-12 Curriculum which is to prepare graduates for tertiary education, employment, and entrepreneurship is certainly attained. Hence, the researcher opted to conduct this study so that the future users of this research may have the necessary knowledge about the extent of the students’ knowledge in the accounting cycle, the students’ reasons of taking or not taking the NC III-Bookkeeping Assessment, and the factors that affect and the support that they need in preparation for the bookkeeping assessment. Moreover, this study had been conducted to develop a learning packet that may be used as a reference material as well as a reviewer in taking the NC III-Bookkeeping assessment. This learning packet is essentially the researcher’s contribution to the body of knowledge.

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