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Hibao-An Integrated School


The study was conducted to determine the Grade 1 learners’ reading difficulties in Hiligaynon as basis for Remedial Reading Program at District VII- Mandurriao, Schools Division of Iloilo City, for school year 2022-2023. The research method utilized in the study was descriptive using in-depth interviews. The study used phenomenology under qualitative research design. The participants of the study were 10 Grade I teachers from District VII- Mandurriao, Schools Division of Iloilo City. Based on the results of the in-depth interview with the Grade 1 teachers regarding learners’ reading difficulties in Hiligaynon, it was found that Grade 1 learners had difficulty recognizing and blending letter sounds, limited vocabulary, and poor comprehension skills. It was also found out that Grade 1 teachers manage the learners’ reading difficulties in Hiligaynon through constant reading practice, individualized reading instruction, integration of games and engaging activities, and utilization of ICT-based reading instruction.

Keywords: Learners, Reading Difficulties, Hiligaynon, Remedial Reading Program



Reading is the foundation for academic achievement and future opportunities, but many children need more time or training to develop this foundation. Children who lack the necessary literacy skills may fall behind quickly and suffer long-term consequences.

Teaching children to read from a young age is critical to improving educational outcomes. Children who do not learn to read in the early grades have a more difficult time developing more advanced skills that are often absorbed through reading.

According to research, reading in one's mother language early in school helps minimize dropout rates and makes education more engaging, relevant, and fun for youngsters. Children who benefit from mother-tongue instruction and learning also perform better in their second language (Dankyi, 2017).

In the K to 12 Curriculum, students in the early grades start learning in their mother tongue, the language they know best. It helps them build a strong foundation before they learn other languages (Department of Education, 2016).

To create lifelong learners in their Language 1 (Mother Tongue), Language 2 (Filipino, the national language), and Language 3 (English, the global language), the learners are more than ready to develop their skills in the different learning areas. It will serve as their passport to enter and achieve well in the mainstream educational system and, in the end, contribute productively to their community and the larger society (Department of Education, 2016).

In line with this policy, teachers in the early grades teach reading in their mother tongue language, which is Hiligaynon. It is also used as the medium of instruction in all subject areas except Filipino and English from Kinder to Grade 3.

However, beginning reading in the early grades is one of the problems that most teachers encounter. First-grade learners are expected to read fluently and comprehend text in Hiligaynon. However, based on reports, most teachers were challenged to make all learners master their reading skills in reading Hiligaynon. Reading difficulties arise over time because of the different factors that affect it.

According to some studies, pupils who enter Grade 1 class with limited academic language skills are typically left behind with other school children in reading. If this problem is not solved, it will continue and reach higher grades (Bon, 2020).

In the above circumstances, it is crucial to determine the learners' reading difficulties in Hiligaynon so that teachers can plan an appropriate remedial reading program. Otherwise, all the initiatives in this regard will be unsuccessful. The learners will not be able to learn the target competencies, and the objectives of the curriculum will not be achieved. If this problem still needs to be solved, it will continue and reach higher grades.

On these observations, the researcher tried to determine the Grade I learners’ reading difficulties in Hiligaynon as a basis for coming up with a remedial reading program.

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