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· Volume I Issue IV

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of synchronized literature circles strategy in increasing the reading comprehension skill in getting the main idea of Grade 12 students.

DESIGN: A quasi-experimental design was used since the study attempted to test the effectiveness of the synchronized literature circles strategy through experimentation of variables.

FINDINGS: The findings of the study revealed that the reading performance of the students in the experimental group is higher compared to the control group after series of experimentation. Therefore, the researcher concluded that the use of synchronized literature circles strategy was found effective in increasing the reading comprehension skill of Grade 12 students.

VALUE: The study was found to be with significant value since reading is a fundamental skill in language learning. This is also in congruence with the rising demand for English proficiency through reading. Furthermore, it is necessary that reading comprehension skills should be introduced to students for deeper understanding and better usage of the appropriate texts across genres and disciplines.

KEYWORDS: Reading, Getting the Main Idea, Synchronized Literature Circles Strategy


Reading is a macro skill in English language learning that requires engagement in various reading activities to develop and increase students’ comprehension skills. In the recent years, the demand for English proficiency through reading is rising. Reading comprehension skills should be introduced to students for deeper understanding and better usage of the appropriate texts across genres and disciplines.

Generally, it is important to assess the reading capability of students because reading is the foundation of all academic learning. If a student fails to master basic reading skills at the outset, it will be a constant struggle for them to get through other disciplines successfully, thus depriving them of the chance to become literate and productive individuals.

Despite the importance of reading, throughout the country many English teachers are wrestling with the issue of why students lack the skills necessary to comprehend English texts. The majority still have low ability in comprehending English texts. In addition, Day and Bamford (2010) claimed that in general, reading is a difficult process. On top of this, many teachers struggle to have their students read the text.

Likewise, most of the teachers of English observe in their classes that whenever the lesson is on reading, some of the students could hardly answer simple questions arriving at getting the main idea, noting details, drawing conclusions, etc. that require critical thinking strategies. Others have difficulty recalling prior knowledge which they can make use to further understand what they read, thus, can increase their reading comprehension.

Indeed, there is a need for identifying main idea and noting details in text because these are the key building blocks of students’ reading comprehension. Before they can successfully move on to other essential reading skills, they must be able to effectively identify the main idea of a text and note its details (Lord, 2015). The ability to properly identify main idea aids in a student’s ability to draw inferences, read critically, summarize, and remember what was read.

Meanwhile in Valenzuela National High School – Senior High School, reading comprehension skills of Grade 12 students are becoming poor. Based on the results of the 1st Periodic Test in 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World during S.Y. 2018-2019, it is revealed that students are within below average level of mastery in reading comprehension with a Mean Percentage Score (MPS) of 33.54 %, and the results in Reading and Writing 3rd Periodic Test during the previous semester, S.Y. 2017-2018 which show that students are poor in reading comprehension as reflected in the MPS of 27.06%.

According to the researcher’s point of view, this problem emerges from the students’ lack of motivation. Motivation is an important prerequisite for learning. When students are motivated, their attention will be greater, and the filter will be lowered. This situation will lead to a better learning. This statement is based on Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis. Relative to reading, when the students are not motivated to read, they are not engaged. In this situation, learning does not occur. Engagement in the reading task is a key in successfully learning to read and developing as a reader. Therefore, to solve the problem, the very basic thing for teachers is to make students engaged and motivated to read.

Research Questions

The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of synchronized literature circles in increasing the reading comprehension skills of Grade 12 students in Valenzuela National High School, S.Y. 2018-2019.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following research questions:

1.To what extent did the synchronized literature circles strategy increase the students’ skills on getting the main idea based on the pre-test and post-test scores?

2. How did the experimental group perceive the reading activities in getting the main idea and noting details during the synchronized literature circles sessions?

3. What were the teachers’ observations on the experimental group’s behaviors during the utilization of synchronized literature circles strategy?

Research Design

Employing purposive sampling technique, a non-probability technique, the respondents of this study were chosen purposively based on the results of the archival data on summative tests and pre-test. Also known as judgment, selective or subjective sampling, this sampling technique relies on the researchers’ own judgment in choosing the samples to participate in the study.

Accordingly, the test was taken by Grade 12 students enrolled this school year 2018-2019 in Valenzuela National High School. The respondents were composed of two groups, namely, control group and experimental group. The controlled (non-experimental) group was the group with the average means scores in the pre-test and received the traditional instructional approach and not subjected for experimentation. Whereas, the experimental group was the group with below average mean scores in the pre-test and was be subjected to experimentation using synchronized literature circle in increasing the target reading comprehension skills, namely, getting the main ideas and noting details.

The experimentation was supposedly to be conducted during literature classes, but since there is no literature class this 2nd semester, conduct of special classes was requested from the school principal.

Sources of data were the results of the pre-test (for categorizing the controlled and experimental groups) and the results of the post-test (for identifying the effectiveness of Synchronized Literature Circles). These tests were validated by experts in language, form, and content to ensure the reliability and validity of the results. Likewise, an attitudinal survey-questionnaire was administered to assess the perceptions of respondents towards reading activities in getting the main idea and noting details during literature circle sessions.

Similarly, the researchers have taken into consideration the relevant and scholarly literature and studies as secondary sources of data that would support the soundness of the results of this study.

Utilizing the quantitative-qualitative method, this study employed triangulation of the results of the tests, the data during the interview, and the researchers’ observations to validate the effectiveness of literature circles in increasing the identified reading comprehension skills of respondents. Moreover, statistical treatment was used in comparing pretest-posttest accuracy and in evaluating the perceptions towards reading activities via literature circle.

For Research Problem 1, Mean, Percentage Mean, and T-test were used for the pre-test and post-test scores. A validation process on the correctness of the statistical computations and data analyses were done through the support of experts in this field. For Research Problems 3 and 4, interview on students’ perceptions towards literature circle activities and the observation on the students’ behaviors during literature circle sessions were employed respectively.

Summary of Findings

Analysis of data affirmed the control group got an average result while the experimental group achieved a high result in their pre-test mean score. Also, the control group got an average result in their pre-test and post-test mean score, while the experimental group obtained a high result in their pre-test and post-test mean score.

In the result of the post-test mean score, the control group obtained an average rating while experimental group scored greater with high rating.

It was likewise affirmed that the students perceived positively the activities embedded in the literature circle strategy making them more engaged and connected to the text. This could also be proven true observable as evidenced by the observation made by the teachers.


In line with the results and findings presented, the following conclusions were formulated:

1. There is a significant difference in the test result of the pre-test and post-test of the control group. But pre-test got a higher mean score compare to the post-test leading the researchers to arrive at the conclusion that students found items in the post-test a bit difficult than those in their pre-test.

2. There is no significant difference in the test result of the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group but upon comparing the post-test results of the control and experimental groups, there is a significant difference telling that the intervention did contribute great impact on the academic performances of the students in terms of their reading and writing skills.

3. Students’ performances were significantly better when they were under literature circle strategy.

4. Students appear to be motivated to read and discuss the literary texts more when they know what that they are going to discuss them with their peers. Literature circles encourage all students to participate in the discussions, including the students who would usually not volunteer to talk during whole-class discussions. Implementing the literature circles technique is a wonderful way to demonstrate that the students have learned reading comprehension skills and are now able to take those learned skills and effectively read, analyze, and discuss a literary text to help ensure their own understanding of the story.


  1. Ferguson & Kern (2018). The role of talk in literature circles. Retrieved from
  2. Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W.E. (2018). Attitudes and motivation in second language, Ohio. Rowley Newbury House.
  3. Jacobs, M. (2018). Using literature circles to increase reading comprehension and student motivation. (Published Thesis)
  4. Sinha, S. (2019). Rosenblatt’s theory of reading: Exploring literature. Retrieved from:
  1. Zimmermann & Hutchins, (2013). Reading with understanding: A global expectation. Retrieved