**ABSTRACT**

This study aims to assess the implementation of the different domains in Mathematics teaching through the SPA and the academic performance of the junior high school students. Findings of the study served as input for instructional enhancement in Mathematics. The study also determined relationship between the student- respondents’ academic performance and the level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education. Moreover, the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between the student- respondents’ Academic Performance and the Level of Implementation of SPA in Mathematics Education. The extent of student participation in the spiral progression approach in mathematics and the academic performance of the students. Thus, students were motivated to learn when the teacher presents the process well and they were interested to participate during the discussion.

This study used the descriptive-correlation method employing the survey and correlation techniques. The qualitative analysis of the study was based on the data gathered from the questionnaire answered by both the teachers and the students. This included the level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education. Also, the academic performance of the Grade 10 students was described based on the result of the achievement test which was administered to them.

Meanwhile, comparison in the perceived level of implementation of the SPA was done when the respondents were grouped according to profile. Finally, the study had tested if there exists a relationship between the academic performance of students and the level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education. From the results of the study, an Instructional Enhancement Projects was conceptualized and suggested.

The perceived level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education among teachers is significantly different. Male teacher respondents are more likely than female teacher respondents to use a spiral progression technique while teaching math.

Comparison in the level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education as perceived by the student-respondents when grouped according to profile When students are categorized by profile factors, there is no significant variation in their perceptions of the level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education. Relationship between the student- respondents’ academic performance and the level of implementation of SPA in Mathematics education

There is a strong correlation between student-respondent academic performance and the level of SPA implementation in mathematics education. The spiral progression strategy to teaching in Mathematics was found to have a favorable impact on students' academic achievement.

Students have common perception as regards the implementation of SPA in mathematics education. They perceive that the different areas which include knowledge of the subject matter, teaching strategies, instructional materials, and assessment in student learning were all considered in mathematics education following the SPA.

There is no established relationship between the student- respondents’ academic performance in mathematics and the relatively extensive implementation of SPA in Mathematics education.

**Keywords: ***Spiral Progression, Academic Performance, Instructional Enhancement *

**INTRODUCTION**

The rising environment of innovations in areas such as space technologies, technological and scientific development, quality production, and inventions has raised interest of countries in science, engineering, and innovative technologies, urging them to focus on the fields of education and investment. Along with this, modernization with the digitalization process had changed the labor markets and individual competencies. Report of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2017) suggests that in those industries where digitalization is higher, competencies focused on literacy, problem-solving skills, information and communications skills, management and communication, STEM (Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) skills, and self-organization and learning readiness skills are indispensable. In this context, skills that play a key role in teaching students’ deep understanding of knowledge and facilitating the transfer of knowledge to new environments gained more importance.

As the education milieu continues to respond to the demand of modernization and innovation, Philippines for example, took the initiative to become globally attuned. The implementation of RA 10533, otherwise known as Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 in the Philippines was intended to produce graduates that are prepared for college with the help of a well-developed and well-designed curriculum. Specifically, the goals of K-12 curriculum were to (a) provide a set of specific competencies through the provision of an appropriate track and strand to every student, (b) ensure that the student is ready for further studies towards a baccalaureate degree, and (c) to ensure that the basic K-12 education that the student receives conforms with the international standards (Wenceslao, 2022). In the context of Mathematics, which is recognized to be one subject that permeates life at any age and in any circumstance, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school. Hence, it must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.

Considering the efforts to improve the performance of students in Mathematics especially in basic education, dismal results in international assessment are revealed. Trends in International Mathematics and Science (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) showed that there is a problem plaguing the basic education program of the country. The latest PISA assessment results are consistent with the results in TIMSS, where the Philippines performed poorly across the years of its participation in the study (OECD, 2022). In the mathematics domain (Mathematics Literacy) of PISA, Filipino students achieved an average score of only 355 points. Such score is significantly lower than the Organization for the Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) international average of 472 points. This is the second in the bottom among the six ASEAN countries and ranked 75 among 80 participating countries (OECD, 2022). Meanwhile, the participation of the grade 8 learners in the TIMSS revealed that in mathematics, only 19% of Filipino students were on the Low benchmark, which means that they had “some basic mathematical knowledge,” while 81% did not even reach this level. Overall, the Philippines scored 297 in mathematics and 249 in science, which are “significantly lower” than any other participating country. In fact, the country scored the lowest among all 58 participating countries for both tests. The above presentation is followed up by the recent PISA result which revealed that students in the Philippines scored less than the OECD average in mathematics (PISA 2022).

The Philippine Institute for Development Studies reported in 2020 that some senior high school students struggled with numeracy skills and basic English language proficiency. The recent Department of Education's Basic Education Exit Assessment (BEEA) results indicated poor scores for high school students in mathematics and science, marking the lowest national assessment performance (Albano, 2020). Locally, research found that K-12 graduates were not adequately prepared for college, particularly in mathematics and science, with the lowest scores of 16% and 14.5% respectively in the College Readiness Test (Tamayao et al., 2019). This aligns with the 2019 National Achievement Test, where learners demonstrated low proficiency in mathematics and science (DepEd, 2020).

In Region 02, result of 2018 National Achievement Test (NAT) for grade 6, 10 and 12 indicated that overall, the learners’ Mastery Level Index falls under “Average Mastery” with a Mean Percentage Score (MPS) of 45.74. The region was not able to surpass 75% level of proficiency and accuracy in all subject areas for Grades 6, 10 and 12 as exhibited in the result of 21st Century Skills and learning areas tested. In fact, Mathematics posted the lowest with the MPS of 35.34 which shows that learners performed way below the acceptable MPS. The DepEd Memo suggested that most of the divisions in Region 02 need technical assistance to somehow address the need to increase students’ NAT performance.

Results of summative assessment in high school mathematics reveal the students’ least mastered competencies. Following the spiral progression approach, students consistently fail to master the concepts related to Probability and Statistics. The least mastered competencies conducted by the Math Coordinator of the district for the school year 2021-2022 were the following, in all grade levels , pose real-life problems that can be solved by Statistics, formulate simple statistical instruments, gather statistical data, find the mean, median and mode of ungrouped data, find the mean, median and mode of grouped data, solve problems involving mean, median and mode of ungrouped and grouped data, find the range, standard deviation, and variance of the given data, illustrate the following measures of position: quartile, decile, and percentile, calculate a specified measure of position of a set of data, interpret measures of position, illustrate an experiment, outcome, sample space and event, organize the number of occurrences of an outcome in an experiment using (a)table, (b) tree diagram, (c) systematic listing, and (d) fundamental principle of counting, calculate the probability of simple event, and illustrate an experimental probability and a theoretical probability solve problems involving probabilities of simple events.

Since the implementation of the spiral progression in Mathematics basic education curriculum, limited local research has been conducted regarding teachers’ assessment about the approach and how this may have influenced the mathematics performance of the learners. Also, knowledge of teachers on the subject matter as well as teaching strategies, instructional materials, and assessment methods used by teachers in teaching Mathematics through the spiral progression approach have not been explored. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the extent by which Mathematics teaching and learning is implemented through the Spiral Progression Approach (SPA) and how the SPA may be associated to the academic performance of students in Mathematics.

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