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· Volume II Issue I


This study utilized a descriptive-correlation method to find out the relationship between reading background of the respondents on their reading habits, reading experiences, reading strategies and their reading comprehension level. A total of thirty- one (31) third-year BSED students who specialized English at ESSU Guiuan, in the school year 2017-2018 were the respondents of this study. The salient findings of the study revealed that respondents' reading habits were to read on the internet than in any other type of reading resources; while respondents experienced to make pauses to think about what they read, and the respondents prefer to consult a dictionary to find the meaning of the unfamiliar words. Moreover, findings of respondents' reading comprehension revealed that seventeen (17) students belonged to frustration level. The students showed low level in understanding the passages. There were eight (8) students who are instructional readers, those who could do simple recall of the content. However, only nine (9) of them had an independent level of reading comprehension. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables. The respondents' reading habits and the reading comprehension level posted a significant high correlation, r= .900, p<0.001. Furthermore, a moderate correlation between reading experiences and the reading comprehension level, r = .528, p-value of 0.002, and a significant relationship. However, a high correlation between the reading strategies and the reading comprehension level, r = .918, p<.001, signifies a significant relationship. Therefore, a remedial program should be designed to improve the reading skills of students.

Keywords: Reading Comprehension, Reading Habits, Reading Experiences, Reading strategies, Remedial Reading Instruction Program


Reading problem is a primary concern of schools today. Based on the report of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in 2007, 33% of the nation’s fourth graders and 26% of nation’s 8th graders attending public schools cannot read at a basic level.

Reading is an important tool in every field of professional service and the essential channels around the world to recognize and understand the written or printed materials. Without reading, it will be difficult for students to further their advanced education in higher level fields (Wutthisingchai, 2011). Reading is a tool subject and the pupil's future life and upon his success or failure in acquiring various reading skills (Tenasas, 2000).

For ESL/EFL learners, reading is the most vital skill needs to master for several reasons. According to Harmer (2007), reading is crucial because of two reasons. First, it is beneficial to the students’ personal life. Second, reading is valuable in language acquisition for it improves students’ writing skill, spelling and vocabulary knowledge.

Ozdemir (2009) stressed that reading is necessary in acquiring understanding with all the lessons and learning activities based on the power of extensive reading; indeed, it is essential to read comprehensively. Learning in any lesson depends on the level of understanding of the learning materials; thus, a learner who is not able to read comprehensively finds it difficult for him/her to be successful in his or her lessons.

The ability to read is highly valued and very important especially for education students. Like in taking the LET, just merely following directions or instructions of the test can be one of the hindrances in passing the board examination. However, poor reading skills regarding word recognition and comprehension could be a problem in passing the LET and looking for a job, even to step the path of success in life.

Attainment of the quality education, cannot be achieved overnight. Hence, college is seen as the last stage of formal education for many individuals (Lemanski, 2011), and thus, the responsibility of training the students to become independent and lifelong learners rests on college institutions. The graduates who are ill-prepared to meet gainful employment or who cannot comply the demands of a productive enterprise will continue unless the school exerts effort in developing basic literacy skills of their students.

It is on the above premises that the researchers were encouraged to determine the English reading comprehension level and the reading difficulties encountered by the BSEd students. This study also identifies the reading habits, reading experiences and ways students handle unfamiliar English words while reading. With the result of the study, could be the basis in the design of a remedial reading instruction program to the respondents as early before their graduation.

Research Objectives

This study envisioned to determine the factors related to the reading comprehension level of the third year BSED students of ESSU Guiuan. Specifically, this study aimed to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the third year BSEd students of ESSU Guiuan in terms of :

1.1 reading habits;

1.2 reading experiences; and

1.3 reading strategies used to handle unfamiliar English words?

2. What is the English reading comprehension level of third year BSEd students of ESSU Guiuan?

3. What reading difficulties encountered by the third year BSEd students of ESSU Guiuan ?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the reading habits, reading experiences, and the reading strategy of the students and their reading comprehension level?

5. What remedial reading instruction may be developed based on the result of the study.


Research Design

Quantitative research using descriptive-correlation method was used in this study. It described the factors and level of comprehension skills of the students. A survey questionnaire was utilized to describe the reading profile on their reading habits, reading experiences, reading strategies and to determine the reading difficulties of the respondents ‘encountered. Reading assessment test was administered to identify the level of reading comprehension.

The descriptive-correlational is deemed appropriate in study since this method ascertains the conditions that are predominating in a group or cases related to the study. Calderon and Gonzales (2014) defined the method as a “purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends, and cause-effect relationships and then making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with the aid of statistical methods”.

This study described and interpreted existing conditions on the reading habits, reading experiences, strategies/ ways used to handle unfamiliar English words and level of comprehension skills among third year BSEd students, and determine the relationship between them.`

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study are the total enumeration of population of the third year BSED students who specialized English at ESSU Guiuan, officially enrolled during the second semester, the school year 2017-2018. A total of thirty one (31) third year BSED were used as respondents of this study. The respondents were purposively selected based on the objectives of this study.

Research Instrument

This study utilized survey questionnaire to identify the profile of the respondents on their reading habits, reading experiences, reading strategies used to handle unfamiliar English words in reading, and the reading difficulties. The instrument utilized was adopted from the study of Glen Ole Hellekjaer (2009) and from the study of Wuthisingchai (2011) which was adapted from the survey of Xiubo Yi and Dan Zhang (2006). Secondly, an adopted standardized informal reading inventory develop by Dr. Joyce Jennings called Jennings Reading Assessment was also used.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Data from the survey were tallied, tabulated, and analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used, including correlation analysis. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation was used to determine whether a significant relationship exists between variables. However, the researchers utilized the suggested marking system of the Jennings Informal Reading Assessment on reading comprehension for reliability of result.

A significance level of 0.05 was set to determine statistical significance of variables.


This section presents tabular and graphical presentations depicting the means and percentages of the scores helped to accurately show the outcome of this piece of work. This section further explains the result of the statistical analysis, research questions and the interpretations of the findings on the relationship between variables. Moreover, related literatures and studies were used to support the findings of the research.

Reading Habits of the third year BSED students

The profile of respondents on their reading habits (Table 1) shows most of the respondents with 32.3 percent had read novels of 1-5, followed by a little over 25.8 percent which students had already read 6-10 number of novels. However, 12.9 percent of the respondents had already read 11-15 books of novel. Similar percentage of those respondents who read novels ranging from 16-20 and 21-50 with 9.7 percent. On the other hand, only 6.5 percent of 31 respondents read novels of more than 50. Yet, only 3.2 percent among the respondents who haven’t read novel.

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