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Dr. Juan A. Pastor Integrated National HighSchool

· Volume V Issue II


This study delves into the imperative task of enhancing the technical skills of secondary teachers in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) in Dr. Juan A. Pastor Integrated National High School. TLE plays a crucial role in preparing students for the demands of the modern workforce, equipping them with practical skills essential for various industries. However, the effectiveness of TLE instruction heavily relies on the proficiency and up-to-date knowledge of teachers in relevant technical areas. The study assessed the level of competencies of TLE teachers in DJAPINHS relative to their instructional performance in accordance with prescribed TESDA regulations. It determined the teachers’ profile and their extent of manifestation of competencies along the areas of TLE. It also measured the teachers’ level of competencies in content knowledge, methods, classroom management, ICT integration and evaluation. The descriptive design was used, with a research-made questionnaire as main data gathering instrument. Interviews and CGD’s were conducted to substantiate key findings. Results revealed that teachers greatly manifest competencies in Home Economics and Industrial Arts, while they moderately manifest competencies in Handicrafts and ICT. Teachers are generally very competent in terms of knowledge content, use of strategies and methods, classroom management, integration of ICT, and assessment and evaluation. Further, teachers need to strengthen their skills in applying a range of teaching strategies. They also need to attend more TLE-focused trainings and improve their ICT skills for lesson integration. As a result of the findings, this research contributes to the ongoing efforts to improve the quality of TLE instruction in secondary schools. Through the implementation of core group discussions as a strategic intervention, secondary teachers in Dr. Juan A. Pastor Integrated National High School are empowered to effectively deliver relevant and engaging TLE curriculum, ultimately preparing students for success in their future careers.

Keywords: competency management program, level ofcompetencies, technical skills, technology, livelihood education


In any professional field, competence is a fundamental prerequisite for recruitment and promotion, encompassing basic skills, knowledge, and attitude (Nijveldt et al., 2001). Competency also includes personal characteristics that contribute to task completion (Main & Hammond, 2008). In education, competencies build upon each other from basic to advanced levels (Council on Education for Public Health, 2006).

Teacher competency is multifaceted, involving personal, professional, and social aspects, including expertise in subject matter, teaching theories, managing learning processes, and adapting to community needs (Klassen & Chiu, 2010). Despite pre-service education programs, schools must continually reinforce teacher formation to enhance effectiveness.

Educators play a vital role in preparing youth for the competitive 21st century, making them the most critical resource in education (Njati, 2016). Ensuring teacher competency, particularly in subjects like Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE), is essential for societal impact.

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the subjects in the Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum of the Department of Education (DepEd). This subject imparts competencies to students that are highly applicable in everyday life. Recognizing its significance in the K-12 Basic Education Program (BEP), the DepEd has established a Technical Vocational unit within the Bureau of Secondary Education, viewing it as one of the three key strands essential for preparing high school graduates with employable skill.

The primary goal of incorporating technical and vocational education into the K to 12 Basic Education Program is to equip students with theoretical and practical skills necessary for the workforce. Students are expected to gain proficiency in their chosen trades, enabling them to effectively navigate the demands of the labor market.

In view of the above, the K-12 program aims to prepare students for the workforce, which is one of its key mandates. The Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) subjects in junior high school (JHS) adhere to the regulations set by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). This enables students to obtain a national certification (NC) required by the industry, which they can pursue upon entering senior high school.

Each TLE subject in Grades 7 and 8 is exploratory in nature. This means that each student has the chance to explore the following four main courses of TLE: Handicrafts, Home Economics, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), and Industrial Arts. Students can choose a maximum of four TLE mini-courses in Grade 7 and another four in Grade 8, depending on the offerings of the school and the needs of the locality. During Grades 7 and 8, students do not yet earn a Certificate of Competency (COC). These exploratory courses serve as a prelude to earning a COC in Grade 9 and an NC I/II in 10th grade.

In Grade 9, students choose one course to focus on from among the exploratory courses taken in 7th and 8th grades. At this level, students can earn a COC. In Grade 10, students pursue the TLE specialization course chosen in 9th grade, allowing them to attain at least an NC Level I or II (NC I or II) based on the TLE course chosen.

Incoming Grade 11 students will study core compulsory subjects along with a required specialty. They can choose from the three main tracks: Academic, Technical–Vocational Livelihood (TVL), and Sports and Arts. If students select the TVL track as their specialty in senior high school, they will continue with the TLE course they studied in Grades 9 and 10. This enables them to earn an NC II that can be used as credentials for job applications after SHS graduation. Alternatively, if students choose to pursue further studies, they can continue in the TVL track and earn a bachelor’s degree in a related field.

Despite this well-designed program, numerous challenges persist in the global academic arena, including Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions, necessitating continuous learning and competency updating for TVET teachers of all ages (Ali, 2015). Therefore, developing countries worldwide need to ensure the competency of their teachers through effective education, training, and preparation. To remain competitive on the global stage, institutions must equip their teachers with new and advanced skills to meet real-time challenges in their respective institutions or workplaces (Salleh, Sulaiman & Frederiksen, 2014). One such challenge is the apparent gap between what is learned in school and what is needed in the industry.

The existing technical skills gap between technical and vocational education students and the industry is a major concern for parents, business leaders, and educators in the country. Employers consistently express concerns about the lack of relevant skills among technical and vocational education graduates, hindering their employability. Therefore, technical teachers responsible for educating, training, and preparing students for skill acquisition must address these issues in the course of their duties. Indeed, the prospect of competent TVET teachers will bring about the needed manpower development in related fields of science and technology and will advance career opportunities by producing a competent workforce that will drive dynamic economic growth and development (Njati, 2016). Therefore, it could be argued that a competent TVET teacher possesses sufficiency of skills, knowledge, and attitude or behavior. By extension, these attributes can be regarded as competencies that teachers need to achieve academic outcomes.

It is for these reasons that the researcher is motivated to conduct this study to assess the level of competency of TLE teachers and to develop a competency management program that will optimize their competencies in the delivery of instruction, especially in teaching specialization subjects. It is hoped that this study provides a direct contribution that would help bridge the skills gap and enhance the competency of teachers towards optimum development.

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