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Daraga North Central School

Bicol College

· Volume V Issue IV


This study delves into the experiences of Master teachers in the development of critical literacy pedagogy among learners. Employing a qualitative case study approach as suggested by Yin (2020), it provides an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon within its real-life context. Ten public school master teachers were selected using a purposive sampling technique, based on their experiences in teaching critical literacy. It highlighted the critical role of Master teachers in mentoring, curriculum development, and integrating technology in classrooms. The study also emphasized the importance of embracing risk, innovation, and adaptability in teaching methods. A comprehensive critical literacy pedagogy model was proposed, lesson plan for catch-up Fridays and action research proposal about critical literacy pedagogy. This model aims to create a dynamic and inclusive learning environment where critical literacy is experienced in meaningful ways. Master Teachers are instrumental in fostering a resource-rich environment that supports this pedagogy. The study underscores the necessity of ongoing professional development and adequate resources for effective critical literacy teaching. It also suggests the need for adaptable curriculum designs and assessment methods to better accommodate and evaluate critical literacy skills. The study recommends improvements in teacher training, mentorship programs, diverse resource availability, and the integration of technology in critical literacy teaching.

Keywords: Development, Critical Literacy Pedagogy, Qualitative Research, Mentoring, Curriculum Development, Integrating Technology, Comprehensive Critical Literacy Pedagogy Model



The ability to read and comprehend are essential skills for students to survive how society works because most information is presented through text. According to Suson, et al. (2020), reading helps mental development and conveys a promising effect on the overall development of the learners, especially for their education journey. The ability to comprehend helps the academic performance of the students. Hence, reading is basic at all levels of the educational system because all subjects in the course require reading and this will lead to better academic performance.

According to Diaz and Villanueva (2022), reading comprehension is one of the reading skills that every student must develop. However, there are still learners who are below the proficiency level of reading comprehension despite the reading instructions and strategies provided by the teachers for the improvement of learners’ reading comprehension.

The recent findings from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2022 reveal a nuanced view of global educational achievement, with notable insights for the Philippines. As reported by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2022), the PISA 2022 results serve as a vital tool for assessing the quality and equity of education worldwide, enabling comparisons of educational strategies and outcomes. Despite a minor drop in the average reading score from 353 in 2018 to 347, the Philippines climbed four ranks to 75th, a significant improvement from its lower ranking in the previous PISA cycle. This progress underscores the resilience and potential of Filipino students to enhance their educational performance, challenging expectations of a decline based on the prior assessments (OECD, 2022).

This development is crucial against the backdrop of the 2018 PISA results, where Filipino students' reading scores were among the lowest, paralleling those of the Dominican Republic with no country ranking lower. The 2022 upturn indicates a shift towards improving proficiency levels among Filipino students, 80% of whom had previously not met the minimum reading proficiency level. These findings emphasize the ongoing challenges and opportunities in enhancing literacy and comprehension skills within the Philippine education system (OECD, 2015; OECD, 2022).

Recently, there is a growing concern about increasing number of underachieving learners in schools in the Philippines. According to Adams (2020), learner’s underachievement results from many reasons including lack of motivation for learning, reading difficulties, cultural deprivation, socio-economic deficiency, and disagreeable learning experiences.

Meanwhile, many studies conducted, and many surveys bespeak support the fact that many learners have difficulty comprehending what they read. These studies revealed that the perceived causes of non-mastery of the elements of reading are: no phonological awareness, non-mastery of alphabet knowledge, non-mastery of phonics, poor word recognition and vocabulary, poor fluency skills, and lack of comprehension. Thus, DepEd Order No. 173 series of 2019 was issued to promote literacy and numeracy of learners which intensifies the program called READ to LEAD as part of Bawat Bata Bumabasa (Every Child Can Read) initiative issued under DM 173, s.2019, an advocacy to equip learners with reading skills and to make them proficient and independent readers.

Legally, this study is anchored in the principles enshrined in the Philippine Constitution, particularly Article XIV, Section 1, which emphasizes the state's responsibility to protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education (Constitution of the Philippines, 1987). By examining the development of critical literacy pedagogy in Albay, this research seeks to contribute to the realization of this constitutional mandate, offering potential solutions and recommendations for policy and practice.

Tang (2020) highlights that teachers lack the understanding, knowledge, and training needed to effectively utilize discipline literacy in education. Across the nation, public schools grapple with the challenge of improving academic achievement, especially among average-performing students who struggle with complex reading material and poor reading skills. This underscores the importance of comprehending how discipline literacy can be applied in education. Moreover, Suson et al. (2020) note that many curricula prioritize memorization over comprehension. Training aimed at enhancing secondary school students' writing abilities has proven effective, emphasizing the need for students to engage in literacy practices within their classes.

Moreover, Bouchard and Simmons (2019) suggest that teachers should incorporate literacy strategies into content teaching, emphasizing that literacy goes beyond reading and writing, enabling individuals to interpret and communicate information. Critical literacy is a vital 21st-century skill necessary for students to navigate and assess the vast array of information in various media forms. Teachers should prioritize promoting critical literacy skills among students. Cataraja (2022) additionally emphasizes the importance of teachers mastering Critical Literacy Pedagogy, using literature and concepts to raise challenging questions and critically scrutinizing why specific works are chosen.

Furthermore, according to Parrish (2020), teaching these skills to students is labor-intensive. Parrish (2020) further stressed the importance of supporting students in developing literacy to enable them to engage in lifelong inquiry. Until recently, there was insufficient research on successful teaching models in core content classes with the strategic approaches needed for students to excel in written assessments.

Moreover, in the evolving landscape of global education, critical literacy has emerged as a cornerstone for empowering learners to navigate and challenge the socio-political realities that shape their lives (Trivedi & Patel, 2023). In response to the evolving educational landscape, language educators are increasingly acknowledging the imperative for pedagogical approaches that transcend mere knowledge transmission. This paradigm shift reflects a broader commitment within the academic community to nurture well-rounded individuals capable of engaging thoughtfully with linguistic and societal complexities (Barberos et al., 2023). In the Philippine context, this global trend resonates deeply, given the nation's ongoing efforts to enhance educational quality and equity (Chalk, 2023). Meanwhile, the province of Albay provides a unique vantage point to explore these efforts, with its diverse socio-cultural dynamics and educational challenges.

This research is rooted in the desire to bridge the gap between global educational trends and local pedagogical practices. This study aims to understand how master teachers in Albay interpret and develop critical literacy pedagogy within their classrooms, addressing a gap in literature that often overlooks localized educational practices.

Furthermore, this study aligns with the Key Result Areas (KRAs) in the Results-Based Performance Management System (RPMS) of the Philippines. Specifically, it focuses on the KRA of Quality of Teaching and Learning, seeking to contribute insights on enhancing pedagogical approaches in line with national educational standards (Department of Education, 2023).

From a personal standpoint, experiences of educators in Albay have revealed a disconnect between theoretical frameworks of critical literacy and their practical application in classrooms. Many teachers, despite their best intentions, struggle to integrate critical perspectives into their teaching due to a lack of resources, training, or supportive policies. This problematic situation is compounded by the broader challenges faced by the Philippine educational system, such as limited access to quality education in rural areas and disparities in educational outcomes.

For this reason, the aim of this paper is to develop a critical literacy pedagogy model that promotes critical literacy among students and model that can help teachers to integrate critical literacy pedagogy in teaching creatively and effectively in class. Teachers who used to create a lesson that focuses on power, problems and complexity and examining situations in multiple perspectives will appreciate more the beauty of integrating critical literacy strategies that will hone students to become critically literate.

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