**ABSTRACT**

Mathematics has been regarded as a fundamental subject because arithmetic and logical reasoning are the basis of science and technology. Without having the basic knowledge of Mathematics, no one can make progress in any field. The study analyzed the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 in Rapu-Rapu West District schools, the different factors that hinder the mastery of the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 and produced modules on the five (5) least learned competencies. This study was pursued using the descriptive survey design through the quantitative-qualitative technique. On quantitative technique, a survey questionnaire administered to 15 school heads to determine the different factors that hinder the mastery of the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 while analysis of the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 from quarter 1 to 3 formed part of the qualitative. The study revealed that there are 12 least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 from quarter 1 to 3. The factors that hinder the mastery of the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6are school-related factors, teacher-related factors and pupil-related factors. The modules produced by the researcher will help the grade 6 pupils to master their skills on the five (5) least learned competencies in Mathematics 6.

**Keywords: ***Mathematics 6 competencies, factors on least learned competencies, Mathematics 6 modules *

**Introduction**

It has been said that Mathematics is a fundamental subject because logical reasoning and arithmetic are part of the science and technology. It is difficult to succeed in any profession if they don’t have any knowledge in Mathematics. Hence, the educational authorities focus their attention on students’ proficiency particularly in computational skills and problem-solving. Although Mathematics has been regarded as one of the most important subjects in many fields of study, it has also been considered as one of the greatest challenges particularly to elementary learners in every country.

Mathematics competency is defined as “students’ ability to formulate, apply, and interpret mathematics in various contexts. It includes mathematical reasoning and using mathematical concepts, procedures, facts, and tools to describe, explain, and predict various kinds of phenomena” (Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional, 2019). This definition provides a key aspect of mathematics evaluation, the measurement of mathematical ability in a broad range of contexts, with a view to highlighting the importance of generalizing what has been learned to a different of situations, familiar or otherwise. (Organization for Economic Cooperation, and Development, 2019b). This includes also the least learned competencies in the cited subject.

Globally, most of the elementary pupils find mathematics as a difficult subject. For instance, Kennedy (2019) cites that 17% of the Americans have math anxiety which leads to negative attitudes towards math as early as first grade. In Jamaica, Buddo (2017) emphasized that in 2016, “57 percent of the Grade Six candidates gained mastery of Mathematics in the Grade Six Achievement Test and only 44 per cent of those candidates passed the CSEC Mathematics, falling from 62 per cent in the previous year. A study in Tanzania conducted by Mazana et al., (2019) found that attitude and perception of the students towards Mathematics had effect. In Nigeria, Suleiman & Hammed (2019) found out that most of the students’ hate and was afraid to study mathematics.

The Department of Education (DepEd, 2016) described Mathematics as a subject that spread through life at any age and in any situation. Every student must learn Mathematics systematically and intensely since its worth exceed beyond its expectation. Yet, most learners exhibit unfavorable performance and negative attitude towards Mathematics. The same holds true in the Philippine context where students’ attitude (Callaman & Itaas, 2020) and study habits (Capuno et.al, 2019) are significant factors in mathematics performance. The student-related factors such as study habit and interest affects also the performance of learners in Mathematics (Landicho, 2021). Likewise, there are also school-related factors that highly affects their academic performance such as the lack of instructional materials like textbooks, workbooks and activity sheets.

In the recently 2019 edition of the TIMSS, the country indicated scores of 297 and 249 in mathematics and science, respectively. This is the lowest among the 58 countries participated in the study. The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement in Netherland reported that only one percent of Filipino students can be able to apply conceptual understanding and solve simple measurement problems. The date also shows that only one percent understands the geometric properties of shapes and angles. Likewise, one percent can be able to interpret, use data in tables, and a variety of graphs to solve problems. About six percent reached the intermediate benchmark which means that they can be able to apply basic math knowledge. Further, around 19 percent where in the low benchmark where basic mathematic knowledge was possessed by the students (Bernardo, 2020).

Nevertheless, there are still a lot of students who suffer in their mathematics subjects, despite the teachers’ effort of using different intervention strategies to cater the needs of the slow learner and with difficulties to learn in Math, to cope with their learning style and attitude. Thus, teaching and learning process would be more interactive and more efficient. The use of appropriate different technology advancements like electronic gadgets, computer, modern calculators, and the internet is also integrating with teaching mathematics and recognized by the DepEd to improve the learner’s learning capability of the students (Roma, 2019).

Despite the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum, significant problems still exist especially on the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 and the factors that hinder its mastery. The Performance of Grade 6 Pupils in the NAT during K-12 Program (magna-anima.com, 2019) shows that the overall rating in Mathematics for Grade 6 in school year 2016-2017 is only 34.74 much lower compared to the preceding school year 2017-2018 which is 36.85 and categorized as Low to Absolutely No Mastery. Furthermore, the Percentage of Correct Responses (PCR) per learning competency measured by subject area showed that the pupils’ performance in Mathematics is very low. These problems were manifested in the yearly NAT for Grade 6 conducted by the National Educational Testing and Research Center (NETRC). The cited agency is tasked to conduct research, evaluate, and assess the effectiveness of instruction in the Department of Education.

The low achievement in Mathematics posed a great challenge to present day Mathematics Educators. It seems that the pupils have low self-efficacy, and they are impatient in solving Mathematical problems. Some individuals regard Mathematics as a waterloo and a difficult subject, both to learn and to teach because of its abstract in nature. Teaching-learning Mathematics is so complex that it is nearly impossible to claim that it can be easily taught to pupils without using any tools. But one way of maintaining the interest of the learners is to provide them with different activities which they could perform individually after being given the proper guidance, such as module. It is at this point, the emphasis in Mathematics instruction is for the teachers to be equipped with the necessary resource materials to facilitate the least learned competencies.

The cited situations motivated the researcher to make Mathematics teaching–learning process more effective through understanding what pupils need to know and the factors that hinders the mastery of the least learned competencies. This could be done by developing a learning activity sheets which could be done by the pupils even in their home. Development of a module on the least learned competencies is necessary to meet the pupils’ needs and to help them love and appreciate the world of Mathematics.

Analysis of the least learned competencies in Mathematics 6 plays an important role in determining the quality of basic education. In the context of the K to 12 Program, assessment results shall be used to investigate the learners’ performance so that relevant and responsive policies/programs/reforms can be introduced to improve the teaching and learning processes particularly in the coastal schools. Hence, justifies the conduct of this study.

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