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· Volume III Issue III


This paper delved into the pre-service teachers’ beliefs about the self-regulation of learning from a conceptual change point of view. Driven by the framework theory approach to conceptual change, it aims to introduce methodological innovations in the study of pre-service teachers’ beliefs about the self-regulation of learning. It argues that a conceptual change point of view can also be a fruitful perspective from which to examine pre-service teachers’ understandings of self-regulation theory and its application in the classroom. Self-regulation approaches to learning characterize students as active agents, capable of setting goals and modifying their behaviors to achieve these goals. It is predicated on the premise that learning can be improved and that it is more effective when students employ appropriate strategies to monitor and control their learning processes and outcomes (Boekaerts, 1997; Pintrich, 2000; Winne, 2011; Zimmerman, 2008). Hence, student learning and achievement is determined to a substantial extent by the actions that students take to regulate their learning (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 2001). Conceptual change on the other hand examines the learning that takes place when individuals are exposed to new information that requires a substantial revision of prior knowledge (Chi, 2008; Vosniadou, 2013). The study intends to provide new theoretical and methodological insights into the study of teachers’ beliefs, through conceptual change perspective, because of the prevailing emphasis in educational contexts that learning ability is innate. 

Four hundred and twenty-nine pre-service teachers who answered a 6-point Likert scale Beliefs about Learning and Teaching (BALT) questionnaire were utilized by the study. The results confirmed the presence of beliefs both consistent and inconsistent with SRL in the pre-service teachers’ belief systems. The research also showed that the belief systems of many of these teachers were not coherent, confirming the hypothesized co-existence of opposing beliefs. Conceptual change research provides countless examples of cases where scientific information has been added on to existing belief systems resulting in fragmentation and inconsistency, or in misconceptions that distort scientific information (Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992; Vosniadou & Skopeliti, 2018; Vosniadou, 2019; Wiser & Smith, 2008). The results justify the analogy between pre-service teachers learning about self-regulation. It appears that considerable conceptual changes might need to take place in pre-service teachers' existing belief systems when exposed to SRL theory during their formal education. While they start forming positive beliefs about constructivist epistemology and the importance of self-regulation, existing beliefs, inconsistent with SRL continue to be presently diminishing the coherence of their belief systems and most likely inhibiting their translation in the adoption of SRL practices.



The study presented notable key points on the significance of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) beliefs or pre-service teachers. Such a study is relevant in the present situation of the Philippine Educational System since previous research showed the consistently declining quality of education in the country. Indeed, teachers’ beliefs concerning the noble vocation of teaching are very essential since it will be the cornerstone of their practice once they are in the field. The study emphasized the notion of SRL as a fundamental element in delivering the desired strategies to improve student’s academic performance. Such a study showed the significance of emphasizing the importance of SRL to preservice teachers during formal education. It will enable them to have consistency during their actual practice in the teaching field based on the principle of SRL. Otherwise, the expected achievements from students will be affected as well since inconsistency from the teacher and his practice will prevail. Given the shift from teacher-centered approach/transmissive teaching into a student-centered approach of teaching, teachers must encourage students to utilize a self-regulated learning strategy. Once teachers succeeded in doing this, certain issues and concerns about students’ academic performance will be addressed. To realize the efficacy of SRL, it is fitting, if possible that curriculum managers from the upper echelon of CHED must adapt the ideas presented by the study. It is a must that pre-service beliefs of teachers must be solidified first, particularly in the aforecited topic, before they will be sent out to the real arena of the educational setting. Teachers’ belief system is one of the fundamental reasons for providing education which is of quality armed with elements of global excellence and competitiveness which is at par with countries throughout the world. 

To achieve an enhanced and improved academic performance of students, the coherence of the teacher's belief system, and their actual teaching practice in a certain classroom setting is significant. Thus, uncovering the relationships among beliefs is important to understand the influence of beliefs on teachers' practices and to guide interventions from which will be translated to students’ achievements. This study when adapted to the professional development of teachers even in a school setting will be beneficial to the school’s entire performance because it will lead to the creation of innovations that focus on the improvement of learning outcomes. Teachers' beliefs that are consistent with SRL should be strengthened while the inconsistent ones should be examined and converted into something that will conform to the strategies employed by the SRL. Challenging it may seem, but the SRL paves the way to a radical change from the notion/belief that subject matter knowledge consists of certain facts and that the main task of teachers is the transmission of these facts to students. It is however the other way around which is to influence what students do to learn. From a teacher's standpoint, it is where a professional learning development program must start to evolve. Less emphasis must place the role of the teacher as a simple dispenser of subject matter information and more on the teacher teaching students learning strategies that will help them to construct knowledge effectively (Battista, 1994; Calderhead, 1996; Lane, 2015; Perry, Brenner, & MacPherson, 2015; Torff & Sternberg, 2001). When teacher’s perspective about teaching as a transmission of subject matter knowledge, learning cannot be taught, and intelligence is a fixed ability and that effort is not important for learning due to innate learning abilities of students are changed, certainly, SRL made its mark as a medium to enhance academic performance. As to the real world of teaching, surely adapting the principles of SRL will be beneficial to the school in general. After all, the be-all and -end-all of anything that we do as teachers is for the holistic development of students, inevitably, changing our perspectives into something new such as SRL will be meaningful so long as it contributes to the well-being of students and the entire educational landscape.



The potential adaptation and application of the study into the educational management profession is profound. Based on the results presented, a conceptual change to pre-service teachers’ beliefs on learning and teaching and self-regulated learning is a powerful mechanism to transform some of the inconsistencies with regards to teachers’ beliefs on strategies that improve students’ achievements. Establishing teachers’ beliefs that are consistent with the SRL is essential in determining what works best or otherwise for the improvement of student’s accomplishments. Since in most cases, specifically in public schools, there is a huge concern with it comes to the percentage of students promoted to the next year level. More often than not, appropriate intervention/remediations are not given to students with low performance. In case that it is given, it does not conform to the exact guidelines or principles from which it should be utilized Thus at the end of the day, the practice in itself is vague and questionable. But with the notion of the SRL approach, when teachers' system beliefs on how to carry out learning and teaching are congruent to the principles cited by the said approach, everything will be in place. Teachers will be able to address appropriately the problems relative to students’ performance since, from the very beginning, teachers themselves know what will work to the needs of their students or what will not. This can be a great program where school managers could work on and create innovations that will combat the declining academic performance of students given the inconsistencies of teacher beliefs on how to transmit knowledge. Here SRL offers an option and that is to change their perspective about teaching and learning. 

No best strategy can be utilized to sustain or improve students positive learning outcomes since it is always a case-to-case basis. But with a thorough examination and understanding of the SRL approach, undoubtedly, it will contribute to the enhancement of student achievements. Despite the evolution of education throughout the years, one cannot deny that teachers will always be an instrument as to how students perform in the class, and how they apply the knowledge they have gained academically or personally. Change to be relevant has to overcome shortcomings/criticisms because of its newness such as in the case of SRL which might be a novice approach/strategy in the Philippine educational landscape. This is however what educational managers must do, find new approaches, and try them to fit the needs of the teachers and students through contextualization. Not all the findings of this study may apply to the setting of education in the country but certainly, there is so much that we can learn upon. The idea of a conceptual change perspective relative to teacher system beliefs about learning and teaching is enough to create a positive impact on education. This will undeniably lead to meaningful changes in the state of education in the country particularly in public institutions of learning.